image of Reproduction
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This chapter gives a sound foundation in avian reproduction, to provide the clinician with the necessary tools to work-up and diagnose reproductive problems, and then to treat them. Common issues discussed include egg binding, yolk peritonitis, gonadal neoplasia, excessive egg laying, aggression and fertility and production problems in breeding facilities.

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4.1 Sex chromosomes in mammals and birds.
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4.2 Delayed sexual dimorphism is seen in this pair of Alexandrine Parakeets (left, male; right, female). Sexual dimorphism is illustrated in this pair of Eclectus Parrots (hen on the left).
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4.3 Endoscopic (surgical) sex determination.
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4.5 This pair of Little Lorikeets are engaged in courtship feeding. The typical seed diet fed to many birds is an essential supplementary factor driving reproductive behaviour. This pair of Little Lorikeets have synchronized their proximate factors to result in mating. Disturbance of this Musk Lorikeet’s nest site (e.g. by a predator) is likely to disrupt breeding behaviour, resulting in abandonment of the nest site or loss of interest in breeding.
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4.6 Artificial incubation of parrot eggs.
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4.7 A newly hatched Cockatiel chick in an incubator tray.
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4.8 Hand-reared Moluccan Cockatoo chicks.
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4.9 Orchitis due to salmonellosis in a domestic pigeon.
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4.10 Paresis due to testicular neoplasia in a Budgerigar.
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4.11 Ovarian cyst in a Budgerigar.
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4.12 Ovarian neoplasia in a Sulphur-crested Cockatoo.
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4.13 Pyometra in a Sulphur-crested Cockatoo.
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4.14 Coelomic distension associated with yolk peritonitis (post-mortem examination).
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4.15 Egg binding with two eggs in a Cockatiel. Soft-shelled egg.
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4.16 Oviduct prolapse in a Major Mitchell’s Cockatoo. Note the characteristic mucosal folds of the oviduct.
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4.17 Chronic egg laying in a Cockatiel.
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4.18 Placing a deslorelin implant.
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4.19 Feather care is a self-maintenance behaviour. Gang-gang Cockatoo displaying territorial behaviour – the direct eye contact and the outspread wings are a warning to intruders that an attack is imminent if the intruder does not withdraw. Whether this attack occurs will depend on the individual bird and circumstance.
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4.20 Feather-destructive Galah.
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