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Malnutrition is responsible for up to 90% of pet bird disease, and is the most common cause of death in pet parrots. To correct the problems that lead to avian nutritional disease the veterinarian needs an understanding of the issues that promote malnutrition. This chapter takes a holistic approach to the principles of nutrition.

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6.7 Stress bars present in the feathers of a Green-winged Macaw. Budgerigar with retained pin feathers. Male Eclectus Parrot with melanin pigmentation. Blue and Gold Macaw with abnormal feather coloration.
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6.9 Budgerigar with wing xanthoma. Budgerigar with lipomas. Galah with a fibrolipoma. Budgerigar with a hernia. Great Grey Owl with pericardial urate deposits (gout).
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6.11 Sinus abscess in an African Grey Parrot. African Grey Parrot with a rhinolith. Mitred Conure with a lingual abscess.
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6.13 Radiograph of egg-bound African Grey Parrot.
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6.15 Radiograph of a chick with metabolic bone disease. ‘Dead in shell’.
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6.17 Model of feather plucking. The proportional size of the circles varies with the type of species under examination. For Grey Parrots, for example, the pathological and psychological factors are generally of more importance than the physiological factors. For Cockatiels the physiological factors tend to predominate, and for Amazons the pathological factors are most important. The one common denominator to all these causes can be nutrition. UV = ultraviolet.
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