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Haematemesis

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Abstract

Haematemesis is defined as the vomiting of blood. Obtaining an accurate history is crucial, and the client must be carefully questioned regarding the exact appearance of the vomitus. This chapter provides information on the diagnostic work-up of a dog or cat with haematemesis.

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Figures

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19.1 Typical red appearance of blood which has been vomited. There is dark material in the centre, which represents blood being digested. More completely digested blood is shown in Figure 19.2 .
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19.2 Typical ‘coffee grounds’ appearance of digested blood that has been vomited.
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19.3 Small specks of blood in vomited bile-stained fluid. Such specks can be due to various causes, but especially mucosal trauma secondary to vigorous vomiting of any cause.
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19.4 The general diagnostic approach to haematemesis. CBC = complete blood count; GI = gastrointestinal; NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PPI = proton pump inhibitor.

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