Oral cavity, oropharynxand salivary glands

image of Oral cavity, oropharynxand salivary glands
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Dental and periodontal diseases are the most common problems in the mouth; however, other structural or functional abnormalities of the oral cavity, oropharynx or salivary glands can cause similar signs of dysphagia, drooling, halitosis, anorexia and oral pain.

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31.1 Diagrams showing how the airways are normally protected during swallowing. (a) As the food bolus is moved to the oropharynx, the nasopharynx and trachea are protected by closure of the soft palate and glottis. (b) After the bolus has entered the oesophagus, the upper oesophageal sphincter closes and the airways open. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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31.2 Diagram showing the position of the paired salivary glands and their ducts. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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31.3 (a) Dorsal and (b) ventral aspects of the tongue of a Golden Retriever with a deficit in trigeminal sensation. The dog could prehend food but would then drop it from its mouth during mastication. The ulcerated lesions on both aspects of the tongue are where the dog bit it because of lack of sensation.
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31.4 Cleft palate in a Bulldog. Absence of rugae on the left side of the hard palate is a consequence of a previous failed repair. (Reproduced from the )
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31.5 Craniomandibular osteopathy in West Highland White Terriers. (a) Lateral skull radiograph showing excessive new bone, particularly around the mandible and temporomandibular joint. (b) Transverse computed tomographic (CT) image showing new bone around the mandible. (c) Reconstruction of the CT image in (b) again showing the mandibular new bone. (Courtesy of Chris Warren-Smith, Langford Vets)
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31.6 Calcinosis circumscripta on the tip of the tongue in a dog.
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31.7 Severe periodontitis and contact mucosal ulcerations in an 11-year-old Basset Hound. (© Dr Margherita Gracis and reproduced from the )
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31.8 Canine oral papillomatosis. Multiple grey, verrucous masses are seen on the oral mucosa.
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31.9 Eosinophilic granuloma in a cat. Two ulcerated lesions are seen on the upper lip adjacent to the canine teeth, and one on the hard palate.
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31.10 Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in a dog. A large necrotic lesion is seen at the base of the tongue.
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31.11 Plasma cell gingivitis in a cat. (a) Mild faucitis. (b) Severe proliferative inflammation in the fauces of the mouth. (c) Smaller lesion on the maxillary gingiva of the same cat as in (b). (Courtesy of L Boland, University of Sydney)
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31.12 Stick injury in dogs. (a) Abrasions are seen on the soft palate (arrowed) where the dog ran on to the end of a stick. (b) Self-impalement of the proximal oesophagus with a kebab stick in a Labrador Retriever.
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31.13 Ring of marrow bone stuck on the mandible of a Border Collie.(a) Lateral and (b) frontal views.
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31.14 Linear foreign body: a loop of string under the tongue of a dog.
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31.15 Menrath’s ulcer in the hard palate of a cat.
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31.16 Computed tomographic image of the skull of a dog with masticatory muscle myositis. Note that abnormal attenuation is seen in all masticatory muscles.
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31.17 Masticatory muscle myositis. (a) A Jack Russell Terrier with severe temporal muscle atrophy. (b) Maximum opening of the mouth in the same dog.
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31.18 Tumour of the mandibular salivary gland with an associated mucocoele. (Reproduced from the )
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