image of Stomach
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This chapter outlines the structure and function of the stomach, pathophysiology of a range of gastric diseases and diagnostic investigation of gastric disorders, and breaks down the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of specific diseases of the stomach.

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33.1 Schematic pictures of the stomach from macroscopic to microscopic level. (i) Gastric regions. (ii) Gastric gland. (iii) Membrane receptors stimulating acid secretion. ATP = adenosine triphosphate; Ca = calcium ion; cAMP = cyclic adenosine monophosphate; ECL = enterochromaffin-like; H = hydrogen ion. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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33.5 Endoscopic image of acute mechanical ulceration due to a gastric foreign body in a dog.
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33.6 Endoscopic image of histologically confirmed atrophic gastritis in the lesser curvature.
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33.7 Endoscopic images of histologically confirmed intestinal metaplasia in the greater curvature of the gastric body. (a) White-light endoscopy. (b) Narrow-band imaging.
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33.8 Endoscopic images of histologically confirmed gastric epithelial dysplasia in a female Tervuren (Belgian Shepherd Dog). (a) White-light endoscopy. (b) Chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine 0.2%.
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33.9 Endoscopic image of multiple papillary proliferations in the antrum of a dog.
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33.10 Endoscopic image of confirmed Ménétrier’s-like disease (giant hypertrophic gastritis) in a dog.
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33.11 Endoscopic image of an ulcerated, invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma in the lesser curvature.
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33.12 (a) Endoscopic image of a large (B-) cell lymphoma in a dog. (b) Extramedullary plasmacytoma.
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33.16 Right lateral radiographic view showing a hiatal hernia with prolapse of the stomach (arrowed) into the thoracic cavity of a dog.
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33.17 Left lateral radiographic view showing free iodine contrast medium in the abdominal cavity of a cat with gastrointestinal perforation.
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33.18 Gastric carcinoma diagnosed by laparotomy and full-thickness biopsy.
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33.19 Lymphoid follicles may be seen in the gastric mucosa as darker spots and have been associated with infection. (Reproduced from the )
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33.20 Endoscopic appearance of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis. (a) Subtle irregularities in the mucosa of the rugal folds, consistent with chronic gastritis. (b) ‘Paintbrush’ haemorrhages in the antrum. (c) Multiple superficial gastric ulcers (erosions) associated with chronic gastritis showing small amounts of changed (brown) blood. (d) Severe, diffuse ulceration with significant bleeding in chronic gastritis (fresh blood is dripping down). (c, Reproduced from the )(a, b, d, Courtesy of Edward J. Hall)
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33.21 Endoscopic appearance of giant hypertrophic gastritis. Thickened, cerebriform rugae are present and do not flatten on insufflation. (Courtesy of Edward J. Hall)
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33.22 Endoscopic image of a pedunculated, non-malignant polyp near the pylorus of a dog.
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33.23 Endoscopic appearance of chronic hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy. (Courtesy of Edward J. Hall)
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33.24 Lateral view of a radiopaque perforating foreign body (needle) in a cat, with endoscopic images of the gastric perforation and removal of the needle along with thread.
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33.25 Lateral radiographic and endoscopic images of an intact rubber ball in the stomach of a dog (arrowed). Such foreign bodies lodged in the antrum usually require surgical removal.
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33.26 Endoscopic image of diffuse gastric bleeding in a dog with Evans syndrome (immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia).
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33.27 (a) Endoscopic image of a severe chronic peptic ulcer, which was (b) resected surgically.
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33.28 Ulcer on the lesser curvature following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. Hair and debris are stuck in the ulcer; the fresh blood seen is from an adjacent biopsy site. (Reproduced from the )
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33.29 Endoscopic image of an adenocarcinoma in a Tervuren (Belgian Shepherd Dog). Partial gastrectomy was curative, as confirmed by endoscopic biopsy 3 years after the intervention.
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33.30 Typical ‘boxing glove’ radiographic appearance of gastric dilatation-volvulus in a Dachshund.
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