Disorders of the pharynx and oesophagus

image of Disorders of the pharynx and oesophagus
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The first part of this chapter discusses the anatomy and physiology of the pharynx before observing disorders of the pharynx. For example aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging, treatment and prognosis for oropharyngeal dysphagia. Additionally the chapter discusses anatomy and physiology, and diagnostic approach to the oesophagus. The aetiology, diagnosis, laboratory tests, treatment and prognosis of inflammatory diseases of the oesophagus such as oesophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux and oesophageal fistula are discussed in detail, as are Hypomotility disorders of the oesophagus; and Oesophageal obstructions.

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18.1 Neural regulation of swallowing in the dog and cat. Potential sites of oesophageal hypomotility and megaoesophagus: afferent sensory neurons, brainstem swallowing centre, brainstem nuclei (dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, nucleus ambiguus), efferent motor neurons and neuromuscular junction are also shown. (Redrawn after .)
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18.5 Idiopathic megaoesophagus in an 8-year-old mixed-breed dog. Note the visible borders of the air-filled oesophagus on both the lateral and dorsoventral thoracic radiographs. On the lateral radiograph the trachea is depressed ventrally, and the overlying oesophageal wall creates a visible line (the ‘tracheal stripe’).
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18.6 Positive contrast radiograph of an oesophageal diverticulum in a 9-month-old Dachshund.
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18.7 Endoscopic view of an oesophageal diverticulum (*) opening from the oesophageal lumen in a 12-month-old Dachshund bitch.
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18.8 Placement of an oesophageal balloon dilatation catheter at a stricture site. The balloon is distended with a radiopaque contrast agent.
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18.9 Oesophageal foreign body (arrowed) in a 6-year-old mixed-breed dog.
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18.10 Lateral and dorsoventral positive contrast radiographs showing pooling of contrast media in a dilated oesophageal segment cranial to a narrowing caused by a persistent right aortic arch in a 3-month-old Persian kitten.
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18.11 Congenital hiatal hernia in a 3-month-old Shar Pei puppy. An unusual gas-filled mass protruding through the line of the diaphragm into the caudal thorax was confirmed by contrast radiography to be a hiatal hernia. However, inhalation of barium into the ventral lung fields occurred when the puppy regurgitated.
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18.12 Positive contrast radiograph of a gastro-oesophageal intussusception in a 12-month-old mixed breed dog.
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