Sudden death

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In many cases, mortality is the first sign of a health problem. While these fish may appear to have died suddenly, owners have often overlooked the subtle signs of illness, particularly where there are many fish present in the same facility. This chapter explains investigations, systemic approach, environmental factors, infection, accident and predation.

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Image of Figure 20.2
Figure 20.2 Sudden death of several large koi from a pond. The lack of any sign of disease and a clinical history of overnight mortality suggests death from hypoxia. (Courtesy of B. Brewster.)
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Figure 20.3 The heavy growth of surface plants in outdoor ponds restricts gas exchange at the air/water interface and reduces photosynthesis by limiting light penetration.
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Figure 20.4 An unusual cause of death but one that could have been prevented by using a suitable grid over the inlet pipework. (Courtesy of B. Brewster.)
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