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Neoplasia and developmental anomalies

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Abstract

A neoplasm, or tumour, is a clone of mutated cells characterized by some degree of proliferation, autonomy and anaplasia. This chapter considers skin, vascular system, nervous system, digestive system, urinary system, reproductive system, other neoplasms as well as developmental anomalies.

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Figures

Image of Figure 27.1
Figure 27.1 Epidermal papilloma on the snout of a brown bullhead. Nodules on the surface of the lesion are manifestations of exophytic papillary growth of neoplastic epidermis. (Courtesy of G.G. Combs, RTLA 328.)
Image of Figure 27.2
Figure 27.2 Epidermal papilloma of the labia oris in a white croaker. The smooth raised lesions are manifestations of the distension of the surface by endophytic growth of neoplastic epidermal pegs. (Courtesy of K.P. Lindstrom.)
Image of Figure 27.3
Figure 27.3 Epidermal papilloma of the anus in a black-stripe pencilfish. A smooth doughnut-shaped mass of papillary neoplastic anal epithelium encircles the anus. (Courtesy of S.H. Weitzman, RTLA 432.)
Image of Figure 27.4
Figure 27.4 A koi affected with multiple flat-type epidermal papillomas, sometimes called carp pox. The skin is thickened by a laterally expanding milky-white epidermal proliferation of cells infected with herpesvirus. (Courtesy of W.H. Wildgoose.)
Image of Figure 27.5
Figure 27.5 Melanoma in a platy. Neoplastic cutaneous melanophores spreading via the dermis are encircling the platy and extend from the head to the tip of the tail. Tumour cells have destroyed and replaced most of the elements of the normal skin and their bulk has significantly expanded the surface outline. (Courtesy of I.S. Gorman, RTLA 230.)
Image of Figure 27.6
Figure 27.6 Histological cross-section of the melanoma in Figure 27.5 . Tumour cells have aggressively invaded the underlying skeletal muscle to the midline. (H&E, × 4 original magnification.) (Courtesy of I.S. Gorman, RTLA 230.)
Image of Figure 27.7
Figure 27.7 Erythrophoroma in a goldfish. A large reddish lobulated neoplasm between the head and the dorsal fin consisted of erythrophores producing carotenoid pigment. (Courtesy of F.M. Hetrick, RTLA 2609.)
Image of Figure 27.8
Figure 27.8 Lipoma in a bream. The large spherical ulcerated mass protruding laterally from an area between the anus and the tail exhibits yellowish discoloration from fat stored in the neoplastic lipocytes. (Courtesy of L.E. Mawdesley-Thomas and D. Bucke, RTLA 220.)
Image of Figure 27.9
Figure 27.9 Neurofibroma in a goldfish. A large lobular mass on the tail and smaller scattered cutaneous masses originated from neoplastic peripheral nerve sheath. (Courtesy of B.M. Levy, RTLA 454.)
Image of Figure 27.10
Figure 27.10 Compound odontomas in a freshwater angelfish. Large oral growths of papillary dental epithelium are inducing many well formed teeth in association with a thickened matrix of loose connective tissue containing numerous bony spicules. (Courtesy of G.C. Blasiola Jr, RTLA 2189.)
Image of Figure 27.11
Figure 27.11 Urinary bladder papillary cystadenoma in an oscar. This anorexic oscar had a swollen abdomen with a large retroperitoneal mass (arrowed) containing reddish-brown fluid in a large central cyst formed by neoplastic bladder epithelium. Scale in millimetres. (Courtesy of W.H. Wildgoose, RTLA 7299.)
Image of Figure 27.12
Figure 27.12 A gonadoblastoma in a carp. A huge lobular mass (arrowed) in the body cavity is partly enveloped by mesenteric membranes. The pluripotent neoplastic cells were differentiating into various germinal and stromal gonadal elements in different locations throughout the mass. (Courtesy of W.H. Wildgoose, RTLA 6228.)
Image of Figure 27.13
Figure 27.13 A thymic lymphoma in a black-fin pearlfish. The white mass protruding from the opercular cavity is packed with proliferating neoplastic lymphocytes. Scale in centimetres. (Courtesy of G.C. Blasiola Jr, RTLA 1646.)
Image of Figure 27.14
Figure 27.14 Teratoma in a guppy. The scale-covered ventral abdominal growth with attached fins contains various normal tissues, including brain, suggestive of abortive Siamese twin formation. Neoplasms arising in such malformations are called teratomas or teratocarcinomas. (Courtesy of R. Wenk, RTLA 75.)
Image of Figure 27.15
Figure 27.15 Polycystic kidney in a goldfish. The multilocular fluid-filled thin-walled mass of grossly dilated Bowman’s capsules occupies much of the body cavity. This is a non-neoplastic developmental anomaly that is due to the failed development of a connection to nephrons for drainage. (Courtesy of TJ Dodgeshun, RTLA 1923.)

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