image of Therapeutics
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The aim of therapy is to treat the patient. This involves not only curing the fish and removing the pathogens but also eliminating the predisposing stress factors. Occasionally the morbidity, mortality or the extent of a disease may preclude the need for treatment and in those cases the welfare of the fish must be considered. This chapter analyses environmental improvement, first aid advice, specific medication, routes of administration, choice of drug, non-chemical control methods, supportive treatment, control and prevention, aquatic invertebrates, adverse reactions and human health and safety.

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Image of Figure 30.2
Figure 30.2 A water meter is useful for measuring the total volume of water in large ponds and filtration systems. When performing partial water changes and to maintain the salinity at the same level, the correct amount of salt can be added according to the volume changed.
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Figure 30.4 Calculation of rates for oral medication.
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Figure 30.5 Metal tubes for attachment to a syringe and administering medicine by gavage. Rubber and plastic catheters may also be used.
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Figure 30.6 Commonly used sites for intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections in ornamental fish.
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Figure 30.7 Antiparasitic agents used in ornamental fish. (See text on page 242.)
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Figure 30.8 Antibacterial agents used in fish. (See text on page 242.)
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Figure 30.15 In marine systems, ‘cleaners’ such as (a) neon goby and (b) cleaner shrimps can be used to control some ectoparasite diseases. (Courtesy of Shotgate Koi and Aquaworld, © W.H. Wildgoose.)
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Figure 30.17 An isolation tank with air-stone, internal box filter, thermometer and thermostatically controlled heater. These facilities should be of a suitable size and maintain fish in good water conditions during the course of treatment. The facility can also be used to quarantine new arrivals for at least 4 weeks.
Image of Figure 30.21
Figure 30.21 Histological section revealing crystals in the renal tubules (arrowed) of a goldfish following an overdose of potentiated sulphonamide that was given by injection. H&E stain, ×400 original magnification. © W.H. Wildgoose.
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