Neoplastic and paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the skin

image of Neoplastic and paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the skin
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This chapter discusses the incidence, epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of neoplastic and paraneoplastic lesions, focusing on individual tumour types.

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34.2 Histogenesis of common skin neoplasms. Epidermis (black arrow), epithelial: papilloma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma; dermis (yellow arrow), adnexal lesions, mast cell tumour, melanoma; subcutis (red arrow), mesenchymal: lipoma, sarcoma. (Courtesy of Dr Fernando Constantino-Casas)
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34.3 Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia: one of several similar lesions on the skin of this elderly dog.
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34.4 Superficial ulcerated squamous cell carcinoma on the nasal planum of a cat.
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34.5 Mast cell tumour presenting as dermal nodules on the medial thigh of a Labrador Retriever.
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34.6 Peripheral nerve sheath tumour presenting as a subcutaneous mass on the lateral elbow of a dog.
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34.7 Primary cutaneous lymphoma forming multiple coalescing dermal nodules.
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34.8 An aggressive sweat gland adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis through the cutaneous lymphatic vessels.
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34.9 Fine-needle aspirate from a mast cell tumour.
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34.10 Cytological examination of fine-needle aspirates from skin nodules can help determine the type of mass present. Once the cell population has been determined, criteria for malignancy can be applied.
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34.11 Basal cell tumour on the head of a cat. (Courtesy of David Grant)
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34.12 Canine cutaneous histiocytoma. This lesion, located at the medial canthus of the left eye in a young Staffordshire Bull Terrier, shows the typical appearance.
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34.13 Multiple dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis on the pinna of a young spaniel.
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34.14 (a) Epitheliotrophic lymphoma causing depigmentation of the nasal planum and mucocutaneous junctions of the lips. (b) Generalized epitheliotrophic lymphoma in a Miniature Poodle with pruritus, scaling, erythroderma and ulceration along the dorsum. (c) Epitheliotrophic lymphoma giving rise to multiple non-pigmented nodules in the muzzle/nasal tissues. This dog also had nodules on the eyelids, digits and perianal region.
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34.15 Histopathological section from a case of epitheliotrophic lymphoma showing aggregates of neoplastic lymphocytes (arrowed) within the epidermis (Pautrier’s microaggregates or microabscesses).
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34.16 (a) Mast cell tumour presenting as a well circumscribed, erythematous dermal nodule on the lip of a dog. (b) Grade III mast cell tumour showing extensive mass/swelling on the flank of a Labrador Retriever.
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34.19 Injection site sarcoma in the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal neck in a cat.

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