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Ectoparasite infestation – clinical presentation

image of Ectoparasite infestation – clinical presentation
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Abstract

This chapter covers the pathogenesis of various ectoparasites and the clinical approach to them, as well as diagnostic techniques.

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Figures

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7.1 Microscopic appearance of adult flea from a Domestic Shorthaired cat. (Original magnification X100)
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7.2 Lower leg of a person living in a cat flea-infested house; note the multiple papules developing as a result of the fleas’ bites.
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7.3 Caudodorsal rump of a Border Terrier with chronic flea bite hypersensitivity. Note the degree of alopecia, hyperpigmentation and lichenification.
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7.4 Symmetrical, self-induced alopecia of the dorsum and rump of an 8-year-old Domestic Longhaired cat with flea bite hypersensitivity.
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7.5 Area of pyotraumatic dermatitis (also known as a ‘hot spot’) on the right dorsal rump of a Labrador Retriever as a consequence of reactivity to a flea bite.
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7.6 Close-up view of miliary dermatitis and alopecia on an adult Shorthaired cat, secondary to flea allergy dermatitis.
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7.7 Intradermal skin test showing an immediate positive reaction to flea allergen (F) in a Golden Retriever with flea bite hypersensitivity. Controls are 1/10 histamine solution (+) and saline (–).
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7.8 Microscopic appearance of the canine sucking louse, . (Original magnification X100)
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7.9 Microscopic appearance of the canine biting louse, . (Original magnification X100)
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7.10 Microscopic appearance of the feline biting louse, . (Original magnification X100)
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7.11 Microscopic appearance of a hair plucking suspended in liquid paraffin, showing multiple louse eggs cemented on to the hair shafts. (Original magnification X100)
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7.12 Dorsal muzzle of a young German Shepherd Dog with ulceration typical of eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis, presumed to be caused by a fly bite.
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7.13 Microscopic appearance of . (a) Adult mite in liquid paraffin. (Original magnification X100) (b) Ova and faeces (scybala) of in liquid paraffin. (Original magnification X400)
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7.14 (a) Bilateral periocular alopecia, erythema and lichenification in an adult male crossbreed dog with sarcoptic mange. (b) Left pinna of a male Lhasa Apso with advanced sarcoptic mange. Note the marked degree of hyperkeratosis and scaling, particularly around the pinnal margin. (c) Hocks of an adult male German Shepherd Dog affected by sarcoptic mange.
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7.15 Feline sarcoptic mange in a mature Domestic Shorthaired cat. Note the crusting over the face and ears, similar to lesions that develop in dogs (see also 'Notoedric mange').
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7.16 Crusting and scaling of the dorsum of a Domestic Shorthaired cat with feline sarcoptic mange. Note the hair loss from the tail due to self-trauma.
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7.17 Microscopic appearance of spp. (a) Mite harvested from a canine skin scraping, suspended in liquid paraffin. Note the distinctive crescent-shaped hooks on the accessory mouthparts. (Original magnification X100) (b) Ovum in liquid paraffin. Note the thread attaching the egg to the hair. (Original magnification X400)
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7.18 Severe scaling and erythema in an adult Newfoundland with cheyletiellosis.
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7.19 Papular lesions on the forearm of the owner of a dog infested with mites. (Courtesy of M Paradis)
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7.20 A six-legged larva harvested by skin scraping and suspended in liquid paraffin. (Original magnification X100)
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7.21 Left ear of a mature Shih Tzu bitch showing the presence of an accumulation of red-orange larvae (arrowed) in the cutaneous marginal pouch (also known as ‘Henry’s pocket’).
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7.22 Kitten with ceruminous otitis caused by otodectic mange. Note the accumulation of dark cerumen in the vertical canal orifice.
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7.23 Microscopic appearance of . (a) Larval mite suspended in liquid paraffin. (Original magnification X100) (b) Ova. (Original magnification X400)
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7.24 Adult mites suspended in liquid paraffin. (Original magnification X40)
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7.25 Short-tailed mites suspended in liquid paraffin. (Original magnification X40)
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7.26 Skin scraping showing a mite. (Original magnification X100; oil immersion)
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7.27 Skin scraping showing a mite. (Original magnification X100; oil immersion) (Courtesy of K Tater)
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7.28 (a) Young English Bulldog with localized demodicosis. Note the alopecic, erythematous patches over the face. (b) The right forelimb of the same dog showing patches of hypotrichosis caused by demodicosis.
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7.29 Elderly cat with ceruminous otitis caused by spp. mites; this cat had concurrent lymphoma and infestation, which, in the cat, is often associated with systemic disease.
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7.30 Generalized demodectic mange in a 7-month-old Pug. (a) Note the erythema, hyperpigmentation and alopecia over the ventrum and diffuse hypotrichosis of the distal hind limbs and feet. (b) Ventral aspect of the left forefoot of the same dog. Note that the digital and interdigital skin is swollen, erythematous and alopecic. Dogs with pododemodicosis are often lame (to distinguish them from dogs with pododermatitis caused by allergic skin disease, for example, which infrequently causes lameness).
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7.31 Microscopic appearance of a ovum; note its spindle-shaped form, which distinguishes it from many of the ovoid forms of other ectoparasite eggs. (Original magnification X400)
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7.32 tick attached to the skin of a dog.
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7.33 Ventral neck of a crossbreed dog with a focal, inflammatory reaction (arrowed) to a recently removed tick.

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