Notes on the monographs

  • The rINN generic name is used where this has been agreed. When a choice of names is available the more commonly used in the UK has been provided. The list of trade names is not necessarily comprehensive, and the mention or exclusion of any particular commercial product is not a recommendation or otherwise as to its value. Any omission of a product that is authorized for a particular small animal indication is purely accidental. All monographs were updated in the period March–September 2014. Products that are not authorized for veterinary use by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate are marked with an asterisk. Note that an indication that a product is authorized does not necessarily mean that it is authorized for all species and indications listed in the monograph; users should check individual data sheets. You may also wish to refer to the VMD’s Product Information Database (www.vmd.defra.gov.uk/ProductInformationDatabase/).
  • Only medicines and formulations that are available in the UK have been included – many others are available outside the UK and some medicines in different formulations. Common trade names of human medicines are provided. In many cases they are available as generic formulations and may be cheaper. However, be careful of assuming that the bioavailability of one brand is the same as that of another. Avoid switching between brands unnecessarily.
  • and Veterinary surgeons using this publication are warned that by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) or the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) (either at all or for a particular species), or manufacturers’ recommendations may be limited to particular indications. Expert assistance should be obtained when necessary. The ‘cascade’ and its implications are discussed below.
  • This section only outlines specific risks and precautions for a particular drug that are in addition to the general advice given below in the ‘Health and safety in dispensing’ section.
  • and The list of adverse reactions is not intended to be comprehensive and is limited to those effects that may be of clinical significance. The information for both of these sections is taken from published veterinary and human references and not just from product literature.
  • A listing of those interactions which may be of clinical significance.
  • These are based on those recommended by the manufacturers in their data sheets and package inserts, or are based on those given in published articles or textbooks, or are based on clinical experience. These recommendations should be used only as guidelines and should not be considered appropriate for every case. Clinical judgement must take precedence. Where possible, doses have been given for individual species; however, sometimes generalizations are used. ‘Mammals’ includes ferrets, lagomorphs and rodents. Doses for small primates and other exotic mammals, such as African pygmy hedgehogs and sugar gliders, are given on a species basis only. ‘Birds’ includes psittacines, raptors, pigeons and others. ‘Reptiles’ includes chelonians, lizards and snakes. Amphibians and pet fish are also included. Except where indicated, all doses given for reptiles assume that the animal is kept within its Selected Temperature Range (T). Animals that are maintained at different temperatures may have different rates of metabolism and therefore the dose (and especially the frequency) that is required may require alteration.
  • Primary references are given to support doses where available and are denoted by a letter. Such primary references describe a pharmacokinetic or clinical efficacy trial in that species or species group (not case reports). Primary references are generally not given where doses are considered very well established in the scientific literature, particularly for rabbits and rodents (e.g. from studies on laboratory mammals), or where the product is authorized in that species or species group.For some drugs, non-primary references are also given and are denoted by a number. These generally refer to sources of information such as textbooks where no other primary information can be found and the reference is deemed a useful resource in itself. All other doses can be assumed to be taken from other non-primary sources such as other formularies, book chapters or reviews, or are anecdotal.
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