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Canine tracheobronchial disease

image of Canine tracheobronchial disease
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Abstract

Chronic cough in the dog is most commonly related to: inflammation in the airways, resulting in mucus accumulation; and/or structural disease of the airways, caused by weakening of the cartilaginous support system. Chronic bronchitis is usually of unknown aetiology in the dog but may be related to environmental irritants. Airway collapse (also referred to as airway malacia) can affect the cervical trachea, intrathoracic trachea or primary bronchi, or a diffuse generalized collapse of small airways can be seen. In some cases, multiple abnormalities may be present that contribute to chronic or recurrent signs. Because many characteristics of the history, signalment and physical examination are similar in these disorders and because concurrent disease is common, a step-wise approach to diagnosis and therapy is required to provide optimal control of clinical signs. The following are discussed: Signalment; Presenting signs; Physical examination; Diagnosis; Medical and surgical management; and Prognosis.

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Figures

Image of 30.1
30.1 Lateral radiographs of dogs with tracheal collapse: inspiratory film showing collapse at the thoracic inlet. expiratory film showing collapse of the mainstem bronchus.
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30.3 Bronchoscopic images from dogs with airway collapse. Grade IV/IV cervical tracheal collapse. There is 90% collapse of the bronchi to the left cranial lung lobe; the cranial and caudal segments are both collapsed.
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30.4 Bronchoscopic image of nodular and hyperaemic bronchitic epithelium.
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30.5 Lateral thoracic radiograph showing an intraluminal stent supporting the tracheal collapse from distal to the larynx to the carina.

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