Problems during and after parturition

image of Problems during and after parturition
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Although many bitches and queens deliver in the home or kennel/cattery setting without difficulty, requests for veterinary obstetrical assistance are becoming more common. This chapters deals with predicting the time of parturition; dystocia; postpartum conditions.

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14.1 Early feline pregnancy: 28 days gestation. The fetus has recognizable morphology within the gestational sac (cursors). Fetal membranes are evident. Feline pregnancy: 35 days gestation. (Courtesy of T. Baker)
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14.3 Early canine pregnancy: 20 days gestation. The fetal pole is evident dorsally within the gestational sac. The diameter of the gestational sac was measured at 0.59 cm (cursors). Late gestation canine fetus. Cursors indicate proper positioning for measurement of the biparietal diameter, which was determined to be 1.22 cm. Ossification is evident. (Courtesy of T. Baker)
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14.5 Septate band at the vestibulovaginal junction.
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14.6 Oversized fetus due to anasarca, which was found obstructing the birth canal.
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14.7 Tocodynomometer: sensor, monitor and recorder.
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14.8 Fetal heart rate monitoring with a hand-held Doppler probe.
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14.9 Uterine monitoring recordings, showing strength of contraction (mmHg) against time (minutes). Normal baseline myometrial tracing (before parturition): no contractions. Variation from baseline seen at attachment of sensor (1–2 minutes). Early active parturition (second stage): uterine contractions and abdominal pushing. Active parturition: abdominal pushing with uterine inertia. Vertical spikes indicate abdominal efforts. Same bitch as in Figure 14.3a , treated with 6 ml of 10% calcium gluconate s.c. and 0.50 IU oxytocin i.m. Abdominal pushing evident in conjunction with uterine contractions. The puppy was delivered in 26 minutes. Uterine hyperstimulation: obstructed puppy and ecbolics contraindicated. Fetal distress was evident (persistent fetal bradycardia). Empty postpartum uterus. C = contraction.
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14.10 Postpartum metritis. There is abnormal fluid accumulation within the uterine lumen. Note the endometrium is convoluted and thickened. (Courtesy of T. Baker)
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14.11 Rupture of the uterine horn secondary to obstructive dystocia and administration of oxytocin.
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14.12 Acute septic mastitis. Cursors indicate an accumulation of hypoechoic fluid suggesting abscessation. (Courtesy of T. Baker)
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