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The adrenal glands

image of The adrenal glands
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Abstract

Adrenal gland imaging is performed as part of the assessment of a patient when there is suspicion of abnormal adrenal gland function. Information that is of interest to a veterinary surgeon includes the size, shape and location of both glands, the internal structure, the presence of any local invasion into adjacent vessels or organs, and whether there is any evidence of distant metastases. Adrenal gland imaging alone cannot be used as an indicator of adrenal gland function, and findings should be interpreted in the light of the clinical presentation and results of other diagnostic tests. The chapter covers Overview of anatomy; Radiography; Ultrasonography; Overview of additional imaging modalities; and Adrenal gland diseases.

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Figures

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15.1 Ultrasonograms of the normal canine adrenal glands. Right adrenal gland. Left adrenal gland.
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15.2 Ultrasonograms of the normal feline adrenal glands. Right adrenal gland. Left adrenal gland.
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15.3 Lateral radiograph showing mineralization of the adrenal glands in an aged cat. This is considered an insignificant finding.
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15.4 Subtraction fluoroscopic image of a tumour thrombus creating a filling defect in the caudal vena cava.
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15.5 Ultrasonogram of a normal adrenal gland showing the cortex and medulla.
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15.6 Ultrasonogram of a phaeochromocytoma showing no invasion into the adjacent caudal vena cava (CVC). Contrast CT image of the same dog as in Figure 15.4 , showing tumour invasion into the caudal vena cava (CVC).
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15.7 Magnetic resonance images of the normal canine left adrenal gland and the normal canine right adrenal gland.
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15.8 Ultrasonogram showing mineralization of the left (L) and right (R) adrenal glands of an aged cat. Note the distal shadowing impeding the view of the deeper structures.
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15.9 Ultrasonogram of a right adrenal gland carcinoma; thoracic radiographs demonstrated nodular pulmonary metastatic disease. CVC = Caudal vena cava; rk = Right kidney.
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15.10 Ultrasonogram of a dog with diabetes mellitus showing mild bilateral adrenomegaly.
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15.11 Ultrasonogram of an adrenal gland 6 weeks after beginning treatment with trilostane. The adrenal gland is enlarged and shows marked variation in its internal echogenicity.
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15.12 Ultrasonogram of a dog with hypoadreno- corticism; both adrenal glands were thin.
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15.13 Right lateral abdominal radiograph of a dog with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, showing mild hepatomegaly, a ‘pot-bellied’ appearance and moderate distension of the bladder.
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15.14 Lateral radiograph showing calcinosis cutis in the soft tissue structures dorsal to the cervicothoracic region of the spine.
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15.15 DV radiograph of the caudal thorax showing hyperlucent right caudal lung fields caused by pulmonary thromboembolism.
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15.16 Contrast CT image showing haemorrhage within the retroperitoneal space dorsal to the right kidney. A 2 cm diameter adrenal gland carcinoma can be seen opposed to the right dorsal surface of the opacified caudal vena cava (CVC).
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15.17 Lateral thoracic radiograph demonstrating microcardia and hypovascular lung fields, which may be evident in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism.
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15.18 Ultrasonogram of an adrenal gland mass in a cat with primary hyperaldosteronism.

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