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Disorders of leucocyte number

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Abstract

Leucocytes are inflammatory cells, and the main reason to measure the total white blood cell count and differential white blood cell count, and to evaluate leucocyte morphology, is to determine whether the animal is showing an inflammatory process and, if so, to characterize the severity and other characteristics of that inflammatory response. This chapter covers technical aspects; leucocyte pools; leucocyte responses in inflammation; non-inflammatory causes of leucocytosis; nucleated erythrocytes; leukaemia and drug treatments.

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Figures

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12.1 Imprecision in differential leucocyte counts for three commonly employed methods. Two canine blood samples (a and b) were analysed consecutively 10 times by each method. The manual differential count included 100 WBCs. The Sysmex XT 2000iV and Advia 2120 are automated haematology instruments with veterinary software that perform an automated differential count on thousands of WBCs using a laser-based, flow cytometric system. The automated counts were more precise than the manual count, but still had moderate imprecision for monocytes and eosinophils . Automated differential monocyte counts had a CV of 10–16% (a), which indicates greater imprecision than achieved by manual differential counts for neutrophils and lymphocytes for that sample. Note that the blood in (b) gave greater imprecision for manual differential counts of lymphocytes (CV 64%), monocytes (CV 58%) and especially eosinophils (CV 122%). The Advia machine also had greater imprecision for eosinophils (CV 21%), as did the Sysmex machine (CV 12%) for sample (b). The greater imprecision in (b) was caused by lymphopenia and severe eosinopenia.
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12.3 Responses of leucocytes (cells × 10/l on axis) over time (hours on axis) following administration of a single dose of 20 mg prednisolone (2.2 mg/kg) to a dog. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia and eosinopenia occurred for 2–10 hours after treatment, with a return to baseline values at 24 hours. (Created with data from )
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12.4 Responses of leucocytes (cells × 10/l on axis) over time (hours on axis) following administration of a single dose of 5 mg of prednisolone to a cat. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia occurred for 2–8 hours after treatment, with a return to baseline values at 24 hours. Eosinophils and monocytes remained within reference values with a tendency toward eosinopenia and monocytosis. (Created with data from )

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