1887

Disorders of leucocyte function

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Abstract

This chapter considers disorders in which persistent inflammatory or infectious disease is associated with functionally defective peripheral blood leucocytes. Such leucocyte function disorders may be divided into those that are acquired in adult animals and congenital diseases of younger animals that are likely to have an inherited basis. The former are relatively more common than congenital function defects which are rarely encountered in small animals. This chapter covers tests of leucocyte function; assessment of cytotoxic function; acquired defects of leucocyte function; congenital leucocyte function disorders; diagnostic approach to suspected leucocyte function disorders; therapy for leucocyte function disorders.

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Figures

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13.2 Neutrophils isolated from the peripheral blood of a normal dog were incubated with opsonized by fresh dog serum or without prior serum opsonization. After 10 minutes the reactions were stopped by the addition of formal saline and the preparations cytocentrifuged. The neutrophils effectively phagocytose large numbers of opsonized organisms in (a), with a high proportion of neutrophils containing staphylococci and a significant number of staphylococci per neutrophil. By contrast, the unopsonized staphylococci in (b) are poorly phagocytosed.
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13.3 Assessment of neutrophil killing of . Opsonized were incubated with neutrophils from a normal dog and a dog with a suspected neutrophil function defect (test dog). Phagocytosed organisms were killed progressively by the normal dog neutrophils over a 90-minute time course, but defective neutrophils were unable to kill the phagocytosed staphylococci.
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13.4 Isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by separation over Ficoll–Hypaque. A diluted blood sample is overlaid on to density gradient medium (Ficoll–Hypaque, typical specific gravity 1.077). After centrifugation, there is separation as shown and the mononuclear cells at the interface can be aspirated with a Pasteur pipette.
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13.6 German Shepherd Dog with late stage disseminated aspergillosis. Such animals may have depression of function of lymphocytes and neutrophils , however these findings are likely to be secondary to chronically high levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, or to the release of fungal immunosuppressive metabolites ( ).
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13.7 Data from a German Shepherd Dog with disseminated aspergillosis showing serial monitoring of blood lymphocyte count and response to stimulation of purified mononuclear cells with phytohaemagglutinin There is persistent lymphocytosis with total lymphocyte count fluctuating between 5.0 and 8.5 × 10/l (normal 1.0–4.8 × 10/l). The stimulation index (SI) relative to cultures of control dog lymphocytes is initially normal but decreases terminally, despite rising peripheral blood lymphocyte number. This terminally depressed lymphocyte function is likely to be a reflection of the presence of chronic multisystemic inflammation.

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