Canine transfusion medicine

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Canine transfusion medicine practices have been growing rapidly over the past few decades, reflecting knowledge and practices in human transfusion medicine, as well as the advancing capabilities of general practitioners and referral hospitals in managing critically ill patients and emergency situations. This chapter considers canine blood donors; blood groups and typing; cross-matching; blood collection systems; blood donation; blood product preparation and storage; indications for transfusion; administration of blood products; transfusion reactions; autologous transfusion.

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34.1 Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 blood typing methods: DiaMed, Cressier, Switzerland; DMS Laboratories, Flemington, NJ, USA; Alvedia DME, Lyon, France.
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34.3 Grading of agglutination reactions in a canine cross-match. From left to right: 4+, one solid aggregate of red cells; 3+, several large aggregates; 2+, medium aggregates, clear background; 1+, small aggregates, turbid reddish background; ±, tiny or microscopic aggregates, turbid reddish background; negative.
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34.4 Microscopic agglutination and pseudoagglutination. All micrographs were obtained using a x100 oil immersion objective unless otherwise indicated. Canine single rouleau formation. Tiny canine aggregate. Small canine rouleaux network. Small canine aggregate. Feline single rouleau formation. Feline medium density aggregate. Small feline rouleaux network. Small high-density feline aggregate. Canine single rouleau formation with the appearance of a fallen-over stack of coins. Such formations occur in thin layer wet mounts. Low density feline aggregate resulting in a ‘string of beads’ effect. Red cell crenation is also present. Medium-sized feline rouleaux network pulling apart to form a ‘chain of lemons’. Large feline aggregate pulling apart to form several ‘chains of lemons’. Large canine rouleaux networks bridged by a single rouleau formation (x40 high-power objective). Large high-density feline aggregate. Close inspection of the edge of such formations aids in distinguishing between rouleaux and aggregates.
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34.5 Closed collection system. Open collection system.
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34.6 Canine blood donor in lateral recumbency.
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34.7 Vacuum-assisted blood collection chamber, and scale used to determine collection volume by weight.
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34.8 Upon completion of the transfusion, any blood remaining in the tubing is stripped into the bag.
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34.9 Segments of tubing 10 cm long (marked by ‘X’ on the tubing) are made for later use as cross-match segments. Aluminium sealer clips are most cost-efficient for the quantity of blood bags processed by most veterinary clinics. Thermal sealers are more time efficient when large quantities of blood are being processed. If a sealing system is not available, firm knots may be tied, but these do not provide as secure a barrier against leakage and contamination.
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34.11 Processing of blood components. CPP, cryoprecipitate poor plasma; Cryo, cryoprecipitate; FFP; fresh frozen plasma; PC, platelet concentrate; PRBCs, packed red blood cells; PRP, platelet-rich plasma.
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34.12 A unit of frozen plasma showing the ‘waist’ created by freezing with a rubber band in place.
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34.13 Paediatric filter used for administration of small volumes of blood products.
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