Tumours of the skin and subcutaneous tissues

image of Tumours of the skin and subcutaneous tissues
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Tumours of the skin and subcutaneous tissues account for approximately one-third of tumours in dogs and one-quarter of tumours in cats. This chapter deals with approach to the patient, solitary skin tumours; epithelial tumours; mesenchymal tumours; round cell tumours; melanocytic tumours; mast cell tumours; multifocal neoplastic skin disease.

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12.1 An ulcerated rapidly growing and poorly demarcated skin mass on a middle-aged crossbred dog. Aspiration of this lesion to achieve a diagnosis prior to surgery is recommended.
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12.3 Actinic dermatosis affecting the pinnae of a middle-aged female neutered DSH cat. (Courtesy of T Nuttall)
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12.4 SCC in three light-coated DSH cats. Invasive erosive lesions are seen affecting pinnae, forehead and the rhinarium. The rhinarial tumour is a postsurgical recurrence. (Photograph (b) courtesy of C Gaskell)
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12.5 Rhinarial SCC in dogs. Untreated lesion in a 7-year-old male Golden Retriever. Recurrent tumour in a 10-year-old neutered male Golden Retriever 4 months after surgery and radiotherapy.
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12.7 Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia on the medial aspect of the elbow of an 8-year-old male Weimaraner.
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12.8 Sebaceous adenoma on the dorsum of the head of an 11-year-old neutered female Standard Poodle.
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12.12 Recurrent fibrosarcoma (suspected injection-site sarcoma) after attempted excisional biopsy in a 10-year-old DSH cat.
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12.13 Haemangiopericytoma of the craniolateral elbow of a 9-year-old neutered crossbred bitch. The proximal limb is a common site for these tumours.
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12.15 Histiocytoma on the ear of a 4-year-old male Boxer. (Courtesy of T. Nuttall)
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12.18 MCT on the thoracic wall of a 6-year-old neutered crossbred bitch, showing local erythema and oedema.
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12.19 MCT affecting the second digit of the forelimb of a middle-aged crossbred dog. Differential diagnoses for this swollen digit would include infectious causes (nail-bed infection) and SCC.
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12.20 Satellite nodules and partial wound dehiscence after incomplete excision of a grade III MCT in a 2-year-old male Bulldog. The satellite nodules can be seen distal to the wound.
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12.21 Extensive oedema and swelling around the surgical scar 3 months after excision of a grade II MCT from the flank of a 6-year-old male Bulldog. There is diffuse swelling over the left lateral abdomen extending from the last rib to the flank fold and, distally, down the left hindlimb to the stifle.
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12.22 Wound breakdown following surgical removal of a grade III MCT from the thigh of a 5-year-old neutered Bulldog bitch.
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12.23 Approach to canine patients diagnosed with MCTs on the basis of cytology.
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12.24 Approach to treatment of canine MCTs.
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12.29 Metastases from a poorly differentiated MCT in a 6-year-old neutered female Boxer. The primary tumour affected the left upper lip and there was marked enlargement of the left submandibular lymph node due to metastasis. Erythematous cutaneous metastatic lesions affected the skin of the limbs and the ventrum, and there were ulcerated lesions on the medial thigh.
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12.30 Diffuse MCT affecting the upper lip of an 11-year-old male DSH cat. (Courtesy of I Grant)
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12.33 Epitheliotrophic lymphoma. The distribution of the tumour cell infiltrate in the epidermis and around the hair follicle is evident on low and high power. H&E; ×20 original magnification; H&E, ×100 original magnification. (Courtesy of A Jefferies)
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12.35 A14-year-old neutered male crossbred dog with cutaneous lymphoma with marked pruritus and scaling. A proliferating erythematous scaling ulcerated lesion in an elderly pruritic crossbred dog with epitheliotrophic lymphoma. (b, Courtesy of L. Buckley)
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12.36 Mucocutaneous lesions in canine epitheliotrophic lymphoma. The dog shown in Figure 12.35a , displaying perianal cutaneous and mucocutaneous erythema and ulceration, along with faecal staining due to pain (he would not allow the owners to clean the area). Epitheliotrophic lymphoma on the muzzle of a middle-aged crossbred dog. Lip lesion in a 9-year-old female Shetland Sheepdog.
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12.37 Epitheliotrophic lymphoma in an 8-year-old neutered crossbred bitch. A raised reddened plaque-like lesion and erythematous nodular lesions in the groin. Erythema, ulceration and a buccal mucosal plaque lesion. The same patient on completion of radiation therapy: the plaque-like lesion has regressed and ulceration has resolved.
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12.38 Non-epitheliotrophic lymphoma in a dog, showing multiple raised nodular lesions on the dorsum. (Courtesy of J Dobson)
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12.40 Systemic histiocytosis in a 5-year-old male Bernese Mountain Dog. Lateral and dorsoventral thoracic radiographs show consolidation of the right middle lung lobe, resulting in air bronchograms. FNA of the lesion revealed an infiltrate of histiocytic cells.
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12.41 Ocular involvement in systemic histiocytosis, with conjunctival involvement and diffuse infiltrate resulting in uveitis-like signs.
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12.42 Lung–digit syndrome in an elderly neutered female DSH cat. On the lateral thoracic radiograph, a partially mineralized soft tissue mass is seen in the caudodorsal lung field, which was confirmed on FNA to be a carcinoma. The dorsopalmar view of the forepaw shows extensive soft tissue swelling on the medial aspect, with irregular new bone formation on the phalanges and metacarpi, accompanied by osteolysis. These lesions represent metastatic carcinoma. (Courtesy of S Corr)
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12.43 Cutaneous metastases. An inflamed and ulcerated preputial metastatic lesion from a primary anaplastic sarcoma on the bridge of the nose in a 4-year-old male Golden Retriever. Metastases from a visceral haemangiosarcoma (the purplish lesions visible in the clipped area) in an elderly crossbred dog.
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