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Tumours of the skeletal system

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Abstract

Osteosarcoma is by far the most common primary bone tumour in dogs, accounting for up to 85% of malignancies originating in the skeleton. This chapter covers osteosarcoma in dogs; other primary bone tumours of dogs; metastatic tumours of bone; primary bone tumours of cats.

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Figures

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13.3 Lateral radiograph of a humeral osteosarcoma arising in association with longstanding internal fixation for fracture repair.
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13.5 Longitudinally split specimen of distal radial OSA in a dog, showing cortical destruction, soft tissue and osteoid neoplastic components. Dorsopalmar radiograph of a similar lesion. Radiographic features include: Codman’s triangle; cortical lysis; loss of trabecular pattern in the metaphases; and tumour bone extension into the soft tissues in a ‘sunburst’ pattern
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13.6 The Jamshidi bone biopsy needle: (i) cannula and screw-on cap; (ii) tapered point; (iii) pointed stylet to advance cannula through soft tissues; and (iv) probe to expel specimen from cannula. With the stylet locked in place, the cannula is advanced through the soft tissue until bone is reached. The inset is a close-up view showing stylet against bone cortex. The stylet is removed and the bone cortex penetrated with the cannula. The cannula is withdrawn and the procedure repeated with redirection of the instrument to obtain multiple core samples. The probe is then inserted retrograde into the tip of the cannula to expel the specimen through the base (inset). (Reproduced from ). Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and are printed with her permission.
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13.7 Lateral thoracic radiograph showing multiple soft-tissue dense metastatic osteosarcoma lesions.
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13.8 Scintigraphic view of an osteosarcoma patient following technetium hydroxymethylene diphosphonate injection. Increased uptake is noted in the sternum and 10th rib, suggestive of bone metastases.
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13.11 Kaplan–Meier survival curve comparing limb-sparing and amputation surgeries for canine OSA, followed by chemotherapy. No significant difference is evident in survival between the two surgeries. (Reprinted with permission from )
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13.13 Lateral and craniocaudal radiographic views following limb sparing for a proximal femoral OSA resected with allograft fixation and total hip replacement.
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13.14 Lateral radiographic view after metal implant placement and carpal arthrodesis for a distal radial osteosarcoma in a dog.
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13.15 Postoperative lateral and craniocaudal radiographs after limb-sparing and joint-sparing surgery with intraoperative radiation for a distal tibial osteosarcoma in a dog. (Reprinted from , with permission of WB Saunders, Philadelphia)
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13.16 Preoperative radiograph of OSA of the proximal scapula.
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13.18 Relation of disease-free interval in dogs treated for OSA and preoperative bone alkaline phosphatase levels. Relation of survival outcome of dogs treated for OSA and preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase levels. (Reprinted with permission from )
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13.19 T2 (left) and T1 (right) MR images of a multilobular osteochondrosarcoma arising from the calvarium in a dog. These tumours have a granular appearance on radiography, often referred to as ‘popcorn-ball’.

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