Tumours of the colon and rectum

image of Tumours of the colon and rectum
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Although cancer of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs and cats is uncommon, the majority of tumours that do occur will develop within the rectum or colon of the dog. This chapter reviews aetiology; tumour types; presentation and clinical signs; clinical approach; management; prognosis;

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15.25 The stepwise progression of cancer development for proceeding from dysplasia to an outright invasive malignant neoplasm has been well described in humans. Genetic and environmental factors conspire to change the normal mucosa to a premalignant adenomatous polyp and on to a frank colorectal cancer over the course of many years.
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15.26 Sessile mucosal carcinoma in a dog.
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15.27 Epithelial colorectal tumours develop initially on the surface of the mucosa and are thus amenable to local resection with a margin of surrounding mucosa, provided there is sufficient local tissue available for closure. Colorectal carcinoma shows malignant potential to invade deeper into the underlying tissues. Once the tumour has invaded through the submucosa, full-thickness resection of the rectal wall will be necessary to achieve adequate local management. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and are printed with her permission.
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15.28 As most colorectal tumours occur in the last few centimetres of the colon, it is usually possible to assess the lesion with rigid proctoscopy or (as here) by gentle eversion of the rectal mucosa.
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15.29 Transmural thickening with the loss of normal gastrointestinal wall layering is characteristic of intestinal adenocarcinoma. A large intraluminal mass is also evident.
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15.30 A T2-weighted sagittal image of a large rectal leiomyoma. The size of the mass made evaluation of resectability difficult on palpable characteristics alone. The information obtained by imaging in this case indicated that the mass was not invasive into surrounding structures, and surgery (via a combined dorsal rectal and abdominal approach) proceeded uneventfully.
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