The reptile eye

image of The reptile eye
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A wide range of genetic diversity gives rise to many differences between the eyes of different reptile species. This chapter covers anatomy and physiology, what and how reptiles see and ophthalmic examination, as well as the aetiology, diagnosis and management of a wide range of ocular diseases.

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16.1 Cross-section of a lizard eye. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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16.2 Eye of the Tokay gecko with its multiple pupils. (© David Williams)
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16.3 Histological section of the pineal gland or parietal eye. (© David Williams)
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16.6 Terrapin with hypovitaminosis A. (Courtesy of Dr Edward Elkan Reference Collection)
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16.7 Bacterial conjunctivitis and exudate in a water dragon. (Courtesy of Paul Raiti)
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16.8 Iguana with a periocular inflammatory mass. In this case it was determined to be a fibriscess/granuloma. (© David Williams)
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16.9 The plexus of blood vessels in the reptilian spectacle. (Courtesy of Dr A Mead)
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16.10 Oedematous spectacle in a snake about to shed its skin. (Courtesy of Professor Elliott Jacobson)
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16.11 Retention of the spectacle. (Courtesy of Dr Stephen Barten)
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16.12 The snake mite . (Courtesy of Dr Stephen Barten)
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16.13 Snake mites appearing as dark deposits around a retained spectacle. (Courtesy of Dr Stephen Barten)
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16.14 Severe keratitis resulting from attempted removal of a retained spectacle in a snake.
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16.15 The spectacle shed with the rest of the exuvium in a normal ecdysis. (Courtesy of Dr Stephen Barten)
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16.16 Exceptional spectacle swelling in a snake with an obstructed nasolacrimal duct and bullous spectaculopathy. (Courtesy of Dr Frederic Frye)
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16.17 Less obvious distention of the spectacle of the right eye of a snake with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and mild bulbous spectaculopathy.
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16.18 Incision to relieve distension of the spectacle in a snake with bullous spectaculopathy. (Courtesy of Dr Daniel Priehs)
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16.19 Subspectacular abscess in a python with necrotic stomatitis and an ascending infection up the nasolacrimal duct to the subspectacular space.
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16.20 Central corneal ulcer in an aged tortoise following trauma. (© David Williams)
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16.21 Corneal lipidosis in a red-footed tortoise. (Courtesy of Dr Stephen Barten)
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16.22 Post-hibernational corneal deposit in a terrapin. (Courtesy of Dr Frederic Frye)
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16.23 Uveitis in a tortoise with profound hypopyon.
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16.24 Mature cataract in a tree monitor lizard. (© David Williams)
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16.25 Cataract formation in a monitor lizard that was housed in close proximity to a UV light source. Although suggestive, there is currently no direct evidence of UV light causing cataracts in reptiles. (© David Williams)
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16.26 Microphthalmos and corneal oedema in a snake hatched from an egg incubated at too high a temperature. (© David Williams)
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