An approach to otitis externa

image of An approach to otitis externa
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Otitis is a frequent clinical presentation in practice. It should be considered a consequence of an underlying disease, thus the investigation and management of ear disease forms part of veterinary dermatology. Otitis is defined as any inflammation of the ear canal, whatever the cause or clinical presentation. Based on the history and the clinical signs, it is possible to differentiate between the various subtypes of otitis. This is useful because the clinical approach and therapy will vary depending on the type of otitis present. This chapter discusses Definitions; Pathogenesis of otitis; Acute otitis externa; Chronic otitis externa; Suppurative otitis externa; Feline otitis externa; and Ear canal surgery.

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15.3 Erythema of the ear canal in a patient with acute OE.
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15.4 Video-otoscopic view of diffuse erythema of the ear canal in a patient with acute OE. (Courtesy of Dr Prélaud)
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15.6 Erythema, lichenification and hyperpigmentation of the ear pinna and the ear canal in a case of chronic OE.
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15.8 Cytological examination of a case of chronic ceruminous OE. Numerous Staphylococcus pseudintermedius bacteria are visible. (RAL stain; original magnification x1000) A large number of Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts can be seen. (RAL stain; original magnification x1000)
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15.9 CT scan of a case of unilateral otitis in the left ear of a cat showing severe stenosis.
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15.10 Measurement of BAER. Note the position of the electrodes on this German Shepherd Dog.
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15.11 Ear flushing using a retrograde technique.
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15.12 Suppurative OE in a Cocker Spaniel. Note the pus discharge on the pinna.
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15.13 Cytological examination of a case of suppurative OE. Note the numerous rods (arrowed) visible within the neutrophils. (RAL stain; original magnification x1000)
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15.14 Myringotomy (arrowed) using a video-otoscopic device.
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15.17 Otoacariasis in a cat. Note the dark brown cerumen.
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15.18 Stenotic and proliferative otitis in a Cocker Spaniel.

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