Neoplastic and paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the skin

image of Neoplastic and paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the skin
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Neoplasms of the skin are the most frequently diagnosed tumours of domesticated animals. The prevalence varies depending on the study and geographical location, but in dogs and cats they represent between 25% and 58% of all neoplasms. More than 25 morphologically distinct cutaneous neoplasms have been described. Skin tumours may arise from epithelial elements (epidermis, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands), mesenchymal tissue and melanin-producing cells. Skin tumours may also arise from cells of the skin immune system, including cells of macrophage/histocytic lineage, lymphoid cells, plasma cells and mast cells, In addition, neoplasms of non-cutaneous origin, especially carcinomas, may metastasize to the skin. Neoplastic lesions; Specific tumour types; and Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the skin are all considered.

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30.2 Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia: one of several similar lesions on the skin of this elderly dog.
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30.3 Superficial ulcerated squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum of a cat.
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30.4 Mast cell tumour presenting as dermal nodules on the medial thigh of a Labrador Retriever.
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30.5 Peripheral nerve sheath tumour presenting as a subcutaneous mass on the lateral elbow of a dog.
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30.6 Epitheliotropic lymphoma giving rise to multiple non-pigmented nodules in the muzzle/nasal tissues. This dog also had nodules on the eyelids, digits and perianal region.
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30.7 Primary cutaneous lymphoma forming multiple coalescing dermal nodules.
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30.8 An aggressive sweat gland adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis through the cutaneous lymphatic vessels.
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30.10 Fine-needle aspirate specimen from a mast cell tumour.
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30.11 Squamous cell carcinoma affecting the pinnae in a cat. The right pinna shows early stage lesions with erythema and crusting (actinic keratitis/carcinoma ). The left pinna shows a more advanced, ulcerated and invasive tumour eroding the cartilage of the pinna.
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30.12 Canine cutaneous histiocytoma. This lesion, sited on the lower lip of a young crossbred dog, shows the typical appearance. (Courtesy of S Baines)
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30.13 White nodules of histiocytic sarcoma disseminated throughout the liver of a Flatcoated Retriever; similar nodules were present in the spleen.
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30.14 Generalized epitheliotropic lymphoma in a Miniature Poodle with pruritus, scaling, erythroderma and ulceration along the dorsum. Epitheliotropic lymphoma causing depigmentation of the nasal planum and mucocutaneous junctions of the lips.
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30.15 Histopathological section from a case of epitheliotropic lymphoma showing aggregates of neoplastic lymphocytes within the epidermis (Pautrier’s microaggregates or microabscesses).
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30.16 Mast cell tumour presenting as a well circumscribed, erythematous dermal nodule on the lip of a dog. Grade III mast cell tumour showing extensive infiltration of the lateral thorax of a Scottish Terrier.
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30.19 Injection site sarcoma in the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal neck in a cat.
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