1887

Actinic (solar) dermatoses

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Abstract

Solar-induced dermatitis and neoplasia occur in dogs and cats as a consequence of chronic exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on non-pigmented, lightly pigmented or damaged (depigmented or scarred) skin that is unprotected by hair. The deleterious effects of UV radiation on the skin depend upon the duration and frequency of exposure, the intensity of the solar radiation related to the geographical latitude, and the reactivity of the skin based on genetically determined skin colour, hair coat density and genetic susceptibility. Solar-induced skin lesions in dogs and cats are located on non-pigmented, or lightly pigmented, sparsely haired regions of skin that are frequently exposed to the sun. Lesions are more common in dogs and cats that sunbathe or are housed where there is reflective ground cover (including snow) and little sun protection. This is more common in tropical, subtropical, or desert or mountainous regions where animals spend a substantial amount of outdoors, and is most problematic in hot sunny climates such as Australia, California, Florida, Hawaii and South Africa. Many affected dogs are reported to be sunbathers and spend long periods of time in either dorsal or lateral recumbency in direct sunlight. This chapter looks at Actinic (solar) dermatitis; Actinic keratoses; Squamous cell carcinoma; and Cutaneous haemangioma and haemangiosarcoma.

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Figures

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29.1 Canine actinic dermatitis. Erythema and scaling. (Courtesy of G Burton) Erythema, indurated plaques and papules. Erythematous plaques and comedones. Furunculosis. Haemorrhagic bullae.
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29.2 Canine actinic dermatitis. English Bull Terrier with lesions affecting the face, ventrum and hindlimbs. Lesions on the nasal planum of a dog. (Courtesy of R Muse) Lesions on the ventral abdomen and hindlimb of a dog.
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29.3 Feline actinic dermatitis. Erythema and scaling on the pinnae of a cat. (Courtesy of WT Clark) Progression to squamous cell carcinoma. There is crusting, erosion and haemorrhage on the pinna and face.
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29.4 Histological characteristics of actinic dermatitis. Note the epidermal hyperplasia, keratinocyte dysplasia and subepidermal band of pale-staining collagen. (H&E stain; original magnification x40).
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29.5 A sun protection suit.
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29.6 Actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma. There are multiple ulcerated nodules on the ventrum of this dog.
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29.7 Squamous cell carcinoma. There is crusting, erosion and haemorrhage on the eyelids, pre-auricular region and nasal planum of this cat.
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29.8 Solar-induced haemangioma on the ventrum of a dog.

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