An approach to erosions and ulcerations

image of An approach to erosions and ulcerations
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An erosion is a circumscribed depressed lesion that represents a defect of the epidermis that does not penetrate the basement membrane. Erosions do not bleed and they heal without scarring. An ulcer is a deeper defect that extends into the dermis after disruption of the basement membrane. These lesions are frequently covered by crusts, they bleed easily and, at least when they involve deep dermis, they heal with the formation of a visible scar. Ideally, the differentiation between erosions and ulcers should be based on histopathology, because it may be impossible to differentiate deeper erosions from shallow ulcers during clinical examination. Nevertheless, this distinction may not be particularly helpful in the diagnostic process because the canine and feline epidermis is thin, and therefore erosions frequently evolve into ulcers, especially if they become infected or self-traumatized. Erosions and ulcers are therefore discussed collectively for the remainder of this chapter, although more severe or deeper pathological processes are generally responsible for ulcer formation. The chapter focuses on Pathophysiology; Differential diagnosis; and Clinical approach.

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8.1 Erosions on the ventral abdomen of a 12.5-year-old neutered female Domestic Shorthaired cat with eosinophilic plaques caused by allergic dermatitis. Ulcer on the dorsal trunk of a 3-year-old male crossbred dog with a chemical burn. Erosions or superficial ulcers on the scrotum of a 4-year-old male Akita with irritant contact dermatitis.
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8.3 Erosions and ulcers on the rump of a 13-year-old neutered Poodle bitch with post-grooming furunculosis.
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8.4 Ulcer on the tip of ear pinna of a 7-year-old male German Shepherd Dog with leishmaniosis.
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8.5 Ulcer on the forehead of a 6-year-old male dog with cutaneous dirofilariosis caused by .
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8.6 Self-induced erosions and ulcers on the neck of a 3-year-old male Domestic Shorthaired cat with an adverse food reaction.
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8.7 Ulcerative type of squamous cell carcinoma on the face of a 15-year-old female Domestic Shorthaired cat.
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8.9 Erosions and ulcers on the nasal planum and eyelids of a 3.5-year-old neutered crossbred bitch with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
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8.10 Erosions on the footpads of a 5.5-year-old neutered Boxer bitch with epitheliotropic lymphoma.
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8.11 Erosions and ulcers on the dorsal trunk of a 6 month-old Greek Hound bitch with deep bacterial pyoderma secondary to juvenile-onset generalized demodicosis.
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8.12 Proper orientation of wedge biopsy from the edge of an ulcer and the adjacent skin.
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