Canine diabetes mellitus

image of Canine diabetes mellitus
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Canine diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy, characterized by relative or absolute deficiency of the hormone insulin. This chapter will review current knowledge, including pathogenesis and management, with a particular focus on recent findings that have a direct clinical impact. A general protocol for management of the newly diagnosed patient will also be outlined.

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12.2 Histopathological section from the pancreas of a dog with concurrent chronic pancreatitis and diabetes. Grossly, there was very little pancreatic tissue remaining, and there is very little exocrine tissue visible histologically. A few remnants of islet tissue (dark brown) are present in this section immuno-stained for synaptophysin (monoclonal mouse anti-human clone SY38). This patient was totally insulin-dependent, despite the presence of some islet tissue, suggesting that the exocrine disease had also affected islet function. (Original magnification X40) (Courtesy of Dr Penny Watson, University of Cambridge)
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12.5 A human glucometer, which draws up the correct volume of blood for testing into a disposable cartridge. New glucometers are available that are specifically designed to work with the blood of veterinary species. © Abbot Animal Health.
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12.7 Care must always be taken to draw up insulin without any air bubbles, as this can have a significant impact on the dose. © Intervet Schering Plough.
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12.8 Use of a glucometer to measure glucose in a capillary blood sample obtained from the pinna with a lancet device.
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12.9 Use of a continuous glucose monitoring device. The glucose monitoring sensor is inserted below the skin using a spring-loaded device. The sensor is connected to the continuous glucose monitoring device and can be left in place for up to 72 hours. The patient can wear the continuous glucose monitoring device attached to a harness (a wireless radiotelemetry system is also available). The data are used to generate a continuous interstitial fluid glucose trace using the computer software.
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12.12 Diabetic cataracts. Early diabetic cataract showing vacuoles, before the sudden onset of mature lens opacity. Mature diabetic cataract – note the water clefts in the lens. The dark dull iris results from lens-induced uveitis. (Courtesy of Dr David Williams)
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