Canine hypothyroidism

image of Canine hypothyroidism
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This chapter discusses canine hypothyroidism and its clinical features; it is considered a common endocrine disorder of dogs, yet its true prevalence is largely unknown. Recently, many of the challenges of diagnosis have been recognized and new tests have been developed. As a result, understanding of the type of dog affected, knowledge of the associated and common clinical features, and appreciation of the most suitable tests to select have dramatically changed and improved.

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8.1 Thyroid gland histology. Healthy canine thyroid tissue. Lymphocytic thyroiditis. Note the inflammatory component replacing normal thyroid tissue. H&E stain. Idiopathic thyroid atrophy. Note the loss of normal thyroid parenchyma but without an inflammatory component. H&E stain.
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8.3 A 5-month-old male German Shepherd Dog with disproportionate dwarfism as a consequence of congenital hypothyroidism. Note the short legs, broad trunk and wide skull.
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8.5 The hair loss of hypothyroidism typically begins in areas of friction such as the neck in dogs that wear collars and the tail (‘rat tail’).
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8.6 Truncal alopecia with hyperpigmentation in a hypothyroid dog.
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8.7 Nasal alopecia in a hypothyroid dog.
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8.8 Tragic facial expression associated with hypothyroidism.
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8.9 Excess wear of middle digits in the foreleg of a dog with hypothyroidism, presumably as a result of lower motor neuron disease.
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8.10 Corneal lipidosis associated with hypothyroidism.
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8.11 Schematic representation of the steps for diagnosing hypothyroidism.
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8.13 Control of thyroid function. TRH = thyrotropin-releasing hormone; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; T3 = triiodothyronine; = stimulation; = inhibition.
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8.21 Lateral lumbar spinal radiograph in a dog with disproportionate dwarfism associated with congenital hypothyroidism. Note the shortened vertebral bodies with scalloped ventral borders.
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8.22 Cross-sectional ultrasonogram of the thyroid gland from a euthyroid dog (triangular shape, homogeneous and hyperechoic compared to adjacent muscle).
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8.23 Thyroid scintigraphy images in euthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroidal uptake measurements were 0.5% and 0.05% (reference interval 0.39–1.86%).
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8.24 Schematic representation of steps in the use of a therapeutic trial for diagnosing hypothyroidism.
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8.25 Appearance of a dog with hypothyroidism before and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
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