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Patients with cardiac disease

image of Patients with cardiac disease
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Abstract

Cardiac disease is commonly encountered in small animal practice and is usually an acquired condition in middle-aged and older dogs and cats. A proportion of patients with heart disease will show clinical signs related to congestive heart failure or arrhythmias and will require supportive care. This chapter reflects on Supportive care for dogs with heart disease; and Supportive care for cats with heart disease. Acute heart failure in a dog; Chronic heart failure in a dog; Pericardial effusion in a dog; Aortic thromboembolism in a cat; Patent ductus arteriosus in a puppy.

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Figures

Image of Lead II trace showing atrial fibrillation. The bar shows a 6-second interval.
Lead II trace showing atrial fibrillation. The bar shows a 6-second interval. Lead II trace showing atrial fibrillation. The bar shows a 6-second interval.
Image of Lateral thoracic radiograph showing a generalized enlargement of the cardiac silhouette. The caudal vena cava is elevated and the lobar vessels are enlarged. The trachea is elevated by the enlarged cardiac silhouette and the lung fields show a predominantly interstitial pattern particularly prominent in the perihilar region.
Lateral thoracic radiograph showing a generalized enlargement of the cardiac silhouette. The caudal vena cava is elevated and the lobar vessels are enlarged. The trachea is elevated by the enlarged cardiac silhouette and the lung fields show a predominantly interstitial pattern particularly prominent in the perihilar region. Lateral thoracic radiograph showing a generalized enlargement of the cardiac silhouette. The caudal vena cava is elevated and the lobar vessels are enlarged. The trachea is elevated by the enlarged cardiac silhouette and the lung fields show a predominantly interstitial pattern particularly prominent in the perihilar region.
Image of Nasal oxygen supplementation. (Courtesy of Yvonne McGrotty)
Nasal oxygen supplementation. (Courtesy of Yvonne McGrotty) Nasal oxygen supplementation. (Courtesy of Yvonne McGrotty)
Image of The owner can help to provide a calm relaxing environment. (Courtesy of Stephen Torrington)
The owner can help to provide a calm relaxing environment. (Courtesy of Stephen Torrington) The owner can help to provide a calm relaxing environment. (Courtesy of Stephen Torrington)
Image of Lead II trace showing sinus tachycardia (170 beats per minute) and wide notched P waves, suggestive of left atrial enlargement.
Lead II trace showing sinus tachycardia (170 beats per minute) and wide notched P waves, suggestive of left atrial enlargement. Lead II trace showing sinus tachycardia (170 beats per minute) and wide notched P waves, suggestive of left atrial enlargement.
Image of The cardiac silhouette is enlarged and the shape is suggestive of predominantly left-sided enlargement. There is also elevation of the trachea. The enlarged left atrium is causing compression and elevation of the mainstem bronchi. The lobar vessels are enlarged and there is a mild increase in perihilar interstitial markings, suggestive of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.
The cardiac silhouette is enlarged and the shape is suggestive of predominantly left-sided enlargement. There is also elevation of the trachea. The enlarged left atrium is causing compression and elevation of the mainstem bronchi. The lobar vessels are enlarged and there is a mild increase in perihilar interstitial markings, suggestive of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The cardiac silhouette is enlarged and the shape is suggestive of predominantly left-sided enlargement. There is also elevation of the trachea. The enlarged left atrium is causing compression and elevation of the mainstem bronchi. The lobar vessels are enlarged and there is a mild increase in perihilar interstitial markings, suggestive of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.
Image of Sometimes just visiting new places to stand and watch, or gently explore, is enough stimulation for older or infirm dogs. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Sometimes just visiting new places to stand and watch, or gently explore, is enough stimulation for older or infirm dogs. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Sometimes just visiting new places to stand and watch, or gently explore, is enough stimulation for older or infirm dogs. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of ECG traces from leads I, II and III show low-voltage QRS complexes and also electrical alternans, a regular fluctuation in R wave amplitude.
ECG traces from leads I, II and III show low-voltage QRS complexes and also electrical alternans, a regular fluctuation in R wave amplitude. ECG traces from leads I, II and III show low-voltage QRS complexes and also electrical alternans, a regular fluctuation in R wave amplitude.
Image of Thoracic radiographs showing generalized enlargement of the cardiac silhouette, resulting in a globoid shape with a sharp outline.
Thoracic radiographs showing generalized enlargement of the cardiac silhouette, resulting in a globoid shape with a sharp outline. Thoracic radiographs showing generalized enlargement of the cardiac silhouette, resulting in a globoid shape with a sharp outline.
Image of There is an echogenic space within the pericardium and diastolic collapse of the right atrium.
There is an echogenic space within the pericardium and diastolic collapse of the right atrium. There is an echogenic space within the pericardium and diastolic collapse of the right atrium.
Image of Percutaneous pericardiocentesis produced 800 ml of non-clotting serosanguineous fluid. Samples were sent for fluid analysis, including cytology and culture.
Percutaneous pericardiocentesis produced 800 ml of non-clotting serosanguineous fluid. Samples were sent for fluid analysis, including cytology and culture. Percutaneous pericardiocentesis produced 800 ml of non-clotting serosanguineous fluid. Samples were sent for fluid analysis, including cytology and culture.
Image of An underwater treadmill may be more suitable than swimming. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
An underwater treadmill may be more suitable than swimming. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) An underwater treadmill may be more suitable than swimming. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of A typical presentation with sudden-onset unilateral left hindlimb paralysis. (Courtesy of Simon Swift)
A typical presentation with sudden-onset unilateral left hindlimb paralysis. (Courtesy of Simon Swift) A typical presentation with sudden-onset unilateral left hindlimb paralysis. (Courtesy of Simon Swift)
Image of A step may be needed to maintain ease of access to the cat flap. (© Irene Rochlitz)
A step may be needed to maintain ease of access to the cat flap. (© Irene Rochlitz) A step may be needed to maintain ease of access to the cat flap. (© Irene Rochlitz)
Image of A horizontal scratching post may be useful for a cat with limited mobility. (© Irene Rochlitz)
A horizontal scratching post may be useful for a cat with limited mobility. (© Irene Rochlitz) A horizontal scratching post may be useful for a cat with limited mobility. (© Irene Rochlitz)
Image of Electroacupuncture may be helpful for analgesia. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Electroacupuncture may be helpful for analgesia. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Electroacupuncture may be helpful for analgesia. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of Gentle games are suitable while the cat’s mobility is limited. (© Samantha Elmhurst)
Gentle games are suitable while the cat’s mobility is limited. (© Samantha Elmhurst) Gentle games are suitable while the cat’s mobility is limited. (© Samantha Elmhurst)
Image of Colour Doppler image (left parasternal view) from a dog with a PDA, showing turbulent flow in the main pulmonary artery. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Colour Doppler image (left parasternal view) from a dog with a PDA, showing turbulent flow in the main pulmonary artery. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge) Colour Doppler image (left parasternal view) from a dog with a PDA, showing turbulent flow in the main pulmonary artery. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Image of This DV radiograph shows three bulges – seen at 11–1, 1–2 and 2–3 o’clock – representing an enlarged aortic arch, pulmonary artery and left auricular appendage, respectively. A hypervascular lung pattern is also present. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
This DV radiograph shows three bulges – seen at 11–1, 1–2 and 2–3 o’clock – representing an enlarged aortic arch, pulmonary artery and left auricular appendage, respectively. A hypervascular lung pattern is also present. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge) This DV radiograph shows three bulges – seen at 11–1, 1–2 and 2–3 o’clock – representing an enlarged aortic arch, pulmonary artery and left auricular appendage, respectively. A hypervascular lung pattern is also present. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Image of The thoracostomy tube is capped and secured and a light bandage applied. (Courtesy of Stephen Baines)
The thoracostomy tube is capped and secured and a light bandage applied. (Courtesy of Stephen Baines) The thoracostomy tube is capped and secured and a light bandage applied. (Courtesy of Stephen Baines)
Image of Toys with small treats hidden inside can provide useful mental stimulation with relatively little physical effort. (© Helen Zulch)
Toys with small treats hidden inside can provide useful mental stimulation with relatively little physical effort. (© Helen Zulch) Toys with small treats hidden inside can provide useful mental stimulation with relatively little physical effort. (© Helen Zulch)

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