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Advanced non-invasive imaging techniques

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Abstract

Examination of the heart, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal system and urogenital system has been described. There are still limitations because of the anatomical peculiarities of birds, but ultrasonography provides unique information for some indications. This chapter considers ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443101.chap12

Figures

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12.1 Ultrasonographic examination of a Sparrowhawk. The transducer is placed in the median line behind the sternum. Feathers should be either parted or plucked in the area of contact.
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12.2 Ultrasonographic examination in a racing pigeon, ventral approach. The healthy liver tissue (A) is of average echogenicity and homogenous structure. The intestines (B) can be demonstrated with hypoechoic walls and hyperechoic content.
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12.3 Ultrasonographic examination in a Common Buzzard, spectral Doppler examination, ventral approach. The velocity of the aortic outflow is demonstrated (C). A = left ventricle; B = left atrium.
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12.4 Ultrasonographic examination in a Common Buzzard, ventral approach. The liver (A) is used as an acoustic window. The heart is demonstrated with the left ventricle (B) and the left atrium (C).
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12.7 Ultrasonographic examination in a racing pigeon, ventral approach. The gizzard is always easy to identify due to the hyperechoic content (A, grit) and the hypoechoic wall (B). Beyond the gizzard, no structure can be demonstrated (acoustic shadowing).
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12.8 Plastination of a falcon in sagittal view. (courtesy of HC Biovision). CT scans: plain scan; 50 seconds after contrast medium; with lung filter applied. 1 = conchae; 2 = orbit; 3 = cerebrum; 4 = cerebellum; 5 = spinal cord; 6 = paravertebral ganglia; 7 = lung; 8 = spleen; 9 = external iliac artery; 10 = kidney; 11 = cloaca; 12 = tongue; 13 = optic nerve; 14 = trachea; 15 = oesophagus; 16 = heart (a = left ventricle; b = right ventricle; c = right atrium; d = left atrium); 17 = liver; 18 = ventriculi (e = proventriculus; f = ventriculus); 19 = intestinal loops; 20 = air sac.
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12.9 Plastination of a falcon in transverse view. (courtesy of HC Biovision) CT scans: plain scan; 50 seconds after intravenous iodine contrast medium; with lung filter applied. 1 = left ventricle; 2 = right ventricle; 3 = right atrium; 4 = left atrium; 5 = left pulmonary artery; 6 = right pulmonary artery; 7 = spinal cord; 8 = lung; 9 = breast muscle; 10 = humerus; 11 = oesophagus; 12 = vessels.
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12.10 Plastination of a falcon in transverse view. (courtesy of HC Biovision). CT scans: native scan; 50 seconds after intravenous iodine contrast medium; with lung filter applied. 1 = right liver lobe; 2 = left liver lobe; 3 = lung; 4 = aorta; 5 = spinal cord; 6 = hepatic lobe; 7 = stomach; 8 = femur; 9 = mesentery.
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12.11 Plastination of a falcon in transverse view. (courtesy of HC Biovision) CT scans: plain scan; 50 seconds after intravenous iodine contrast medium; with lung filter applied. 1 = tibiotarsus; 2 = intestinal loops; 3 = ventriculus; 4 = aorta; 5 = spinal cord; 6 = kidney; 7 = air sac wall.
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12.12 CT of a Eurasian Kestrel, axial view. A radiodense area within the left lung tissue can be seen (arrowed). A = pectoral muscle; B = heart; C = humerus; D = spinal column.
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12.13 CT of a Eurasian Kestrel, three-dimensional reformation. A fracture of the spinal column is demonstrated (arrow).
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12.14 MRI of a Goshawk, T1-weighted. A = pectoral muscle; B = lung; C = heart; D = liver; E = intestines (with fat); F = kidneys.
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12.15 MRI of a Peregrine Falcon, T1-weighted. A granulomatous mass could be identified on the pectoral wall (diagnosis: mycobacteriosis). A = pectoral muscle; B = lungs; C = heart; D = granulomas.

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