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Radiography

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Abstract

Radiography is an important and well described diagnostic technique in birds. It provides useful information about the size, shape and radiodensity of the inner organs. Due to the air sac system, most of the organs are outlined against each other, facilitating radiographic assessment. This chapter explores general considerations; equipment; positioning and views; assessment and interpretation; and contrast radiography.

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Figures

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11.1 Radiographic examination in a raptor, manual fixation, ventrodorsal direction. NB. The holder should be equipped with suitable PPE; the gloves have been removed here merely to show the hold more clearly. The legs should be pulled as distally as possible. Ideally the keel should be superimposed on the vertebral column. The wings can be spread using lead plates or lead gloves.
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11.2 Radiographic examination in a raptor using a fixation plate. For the ventrodorsal view the bird is placed on its back, with the legs pulled distally. For the lateral view, the bird is turned 90 degrees and the wings stretched dorsally.
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11.3 Common Buzzard: ventrodorsal and lateral views. This bird had been fasted for 5 days. (A = sternum, B = cervical vertebral column, C = notarium, D = synsacrum, E = pygostyle, F = humerus, G = scapula, H = coracoid, I = clavicule, J = femur, K = patella, L = tibiotarsus, M = fibula; 1 = trachea, 2 = lung, 3 = oesophagus, 4 = proventriculus, 5 = gizzard, 6 = intestines, 7 = heart, 8 = liver, 9 = kidney; not visible: X1 = Gonads, X2 = Spleen.)
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11.4 Racing pigeon: ventrodorsal and lateral views. This bird was fed only hours ago. Note the full crop and distended abdominal shadow. (1 = trachea, 2 = lung, 3 = crop, 4 = proventriculus, 5 = gizzard with grit, 6 = intestines, 7 = heart, 8 = liver, 9 = kidney, 10 = gonads.)
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11.5 Canary: ventrodorsal and lateral views. (1 = trachea, 2 = lung, 3 = gizzard, 4 = intestine, 5 = heart, 6 = liver, 7 = crop.)
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11.6 The head of a Goshawk, lateral view. (A = maxilla, B = cranium, C = palate, D = mandible, E = vertebral column, F = scleral ring.)
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11.7 The wing of a Common Buzzard: ventrodorsal and caudocranial view. (A = humerus, B = ulna, C = radius, D/E/F = carpometacarpus (D, Radial carpal bone; E, alar digit; F, major metacarpal bone), G = phalanx; 1 = propatagium, 2/3 = muscles, 4 = feathers.)
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11.8 Lateral view of a racing pigeon 2 hours after oral administration of barium sulphate (20 ml/kg). The gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated, with a crop containing food, a small proventriculus and a gizzard containing grit.

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