Raptors: ophthalmology

image of Raptors: ophthalmology
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Anatomy of the avian eye is well covered by , to which the reader is directed for further information. The avian eyelids are mobile, the lower more so than the upper. This chapter examines anatomy and physiology; clinical examination; ocular disease: diagnosis and treatment; and enucleation.

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25.1 Use of the direct ophthalmoscope for examination of the raptor eye. This relatively simple technique, which gives a magnified image of the retina but can also be used for evaluation of the iris and cornea, does place the examiner’s face perilously close to the bird’s beak – as can be seen here. Use of the indirect ophthalmoscope. This requires a reasonably dilated pupil and gives a wide field of view of the retina. The disadvantage is that the image is inverted, so this technique requires practice. (© David L. Williams)
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25.2 Unilateral microphthalmos in a Little Owl with abnormal pupil shape and concurrent corneal opacity. (© David L. Williams)
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25.3 Symblepharon following septicaemia in one of a brood of Snowy Owl chicks. (© David L. Williams)
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25.4 Chronic non-healing ulceration in an aged Snowy Owl in captivity. (© David L. Williams)
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25.5 Ulcerative keratitis with calcium deposition following exposure after trauma and eyelid paralysis in a Tawny Owl. (© David L. Williams)
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25.6 Fibrinoid aqueous in a Tawny Owl with severe uveitis. (© David L. Williams)
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25.7 Mature cataract in a young Harris’ Hawk. (© David L. Williams)
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25.8 Slit-lamp examination of a cataract in an Eagle Owl. (© David L. Williams)
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25.9 Slit-lamp examination of a cataract in an Eagle Owl after phacoemulsification. While the procedure was successful in returning vision to the bird, iridal inflammation, here manifest as dyscoria (abnormal pupil shape), as well as posterior capsular opacification are seen. (© David L. Williams)
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25.10 Post-traumatic lens luxation in a Peregrine Falcon. Microphakia in a falcon. (a, courtesy of Keith Barnett; b, courtesy of Ingrid Allgoewer)
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25.11 Gonioscopy of the normal pectinate ligament in a Snowy Owl. Gonioscopy of the dysplastic iridocorneal angle in a Snowy Owl with glaucoma. (© David L. Williams)
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25.12 Use of the slit-lamp biomicroscope. This allows high magnification of the cornea, anterior segment and lens. (© David L. Williams)
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25.13 Retinal detachment. Pectinal haemorrhage after trauma. Peripectinal choroidal rupture with scarring after trauma. Retinal scarring after traumatic detachment. (© David L. Williams)
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25.14 Horner’s syndrome in an African Eagle Owl before and after topical phenylephrine treatment. There was partial resolution. (© David L. Williams)
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