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Initial consultation

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Abstract

This chapter is designed to give information on providing telephone advice; strategies to reduce stress for exotic pets in the veterinary surgery; the role of the nurse in obtaining history; safe handling techniques; triage of emergency cases, and the core principles of clinical examination. Includes self-assessment questions and client questionnaires.

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Figures

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1.1 A cat carrier can be used to transport rabbits. There is newspaper in the bottom, which can easily be replaced if it becomes soiled. A water dispensing bottle can be attached to the carrier door. (Courtesy of Sarah Pellett)
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1.3 A degu with a degloving injury. (Courtesy of E. Keeble).
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1.4 Porphyrin staining around the eyes and nose of a rat.
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1.5 Gerbils may be transported in a carrier or in their exercise ball. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.6 Ferrets can be transported in a pet carrier. This may contain a hammock. (Courtesy of Sarah Pellett)
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1.7 Ruffled feathers can mask weight loss. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.8 An Amazon parrot with unilateral sinusitis. Note the swollen cere, sinus and displaced globe on the parrot’s right side. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.9 A hooded Harris’ hawk.
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1.10 A clear plastic transport box can be used to transport a leopard gecko. Kitchen towel (or similar) is a good substrate as it can easily be changed if it becomes soiled. Note the use of a wrapped heat pad. A pillow case secured at the top can be used to transport small to medium-sized snakes. Larger snakes may require duvet covers. (Courtesy of Sarah Pellett) Tortoises can be transported in open-topped plastic containers. Note the use of a hot water bottle, covered with a towel. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.12 Wearing gloves is advised when handling hedgehogs.
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1.14 A swan hook in use.
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1.15 A swan bag.
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1.16 Having a separate waiting room for exotic pets will reduce stress levels.
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1.17 A rabbit wrapped securely in a towel.
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1.18 Restraint of a rabbit in dorsal recumbency for syringe-feeding. Restraint of a rabbit in sternal recumbency for blood sampling.
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1.19 Mice can be restrained by lifting them by the base of the tail, supporting the forelimbs once lifted. Scruffing may occasionally be required.
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1.20 Rats can be restrained by grasping them around the shoulders, with the other hand holding the hindfeet.
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1.21 Scruffing a hamster.
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1.22 Supporting the hindquarters of a guinea pig will prevent spinal damage.
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1.23 Chinchillas should be held gently around the chest and be supported around their pelvis and hindlegs. (Courtesy of J. Hedley)
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1.24 Handling a tame ferret.
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1.25 Restraint of a sugar glider using a towel.
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1.26 Restraint of an African grey parrot in a towel.
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1.27 Restraint of a Harris’ hawk.
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1.28 Handling a tawny owl.
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1.29 Restraint of an Aylesbury-cross duck.
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1.30 Gentle handling of a pigeon.
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1.31 Restraint of a chicken.
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1.32 Handling a bearded dragon.
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1.33 Handling an iguana.
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1.34 The vasovagal reflex used in the iguana.
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1.35 The head of the snake must be restrained.
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1.36 Both hands should be used to hold both sides of the tortoise’s shell, behind the front legs.
Image of The ‘wheelbarrow’ approach used for examining hedgehogs.
The ‘wheelbarrow’ approach used for examining hedgehogs. The ‘wheelbarrow’ approach used for examining hedgehogs.
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1.38 It is useful to look at the colour of the feet in rodents such as guinea pigs, as assessing mucous membrane colour can be difficult. (Courtesy of Sarah Pellett)
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1.39 Paraphimosis in a chinchilla. Note the swollen penis distal to the constriction. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
Image of Using a paediatric stethoscope to listen to the heart of a budgerigar during clinical examination. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
Using a paediatric stethoscope to listen to the heart of a budgerigar during clinical examination. (Courtesy of C. Dodd) Using a paediatric stethoscope to listen to the heart of a budgerigar during clinical examination. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
Image of Position of the brachial artery (red line) and vein (blue line) with respect to the elbow joint in a chicken.
Position of the brachial artery (red line) and vein (blue line) with respect to the elbow joint in a chicken. Position of the brachial artery (red line) and vein (blue line) with respect to the elbow joint in a chicken.
Image of View of the glottis in a wood pigeon.
View of the glottis in a wood pigeon. View of the glottis in a wood pigeon.
Image of Placement of a crop tube in a red-naped shaheen.
Placement of a crop tube in a red-naped shaheen. Placement of a crop tube in a red-naped shaheen.
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1.40 View of an open glottis in an iguana. This is comparable with other reptilian species. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.41 Intubation of a snake. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.42 Hedgehog with burnt spines after being caught in a bonfire. (Courtesy of D. Hunter)
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1.43 This incubator is ideal to create a warm environment for hypothermic animals.
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1.44 A tear in the wing of a pipistrelle bat. Despite the large size of this wing tear, it is likely to heal on its own in a matter of weeks. (Courtesy of Sergio Silvetti)
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1.45 Radiograph of a fishing hook swallowed by a herring gull. (Courtesy of D. Hunter)
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1.46 A group of oiled mallards. (Courtesy of D. Hunter)
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1.47 Mute swan with a fractured beak. (Courtesy of D. Hunter)
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1.48 Intravenous catheter placed in the medial metatarsal vein of a swan.
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1.49 The physical examination of bird patients can be very helpful in making a diagnosis. Vitamin A deficiency can cause rhinoliths to form. An example of feather chewing or barbering in an African grey parrot. Hyperkeratosis caused by vitamin A deficiency in an Amazon parrot. (Courtesy of A. Humphries)
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1.50 Monitoring the heart beat in an anaesthetized bearded dragon using a Doppler ultrasound probe. (Courtesy of J. Hedley)
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1.51 Using a tongue depressor to open the mouth of a bearded dragon to allow oral examination.
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1.52 A normal tympanic membrane on the side of the head in a bearded dragon.
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1.53 Weighing an overweight bearded dragon. Note the wide tail due to fat deposited here.
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1.54 A severely emaciated frilled lizard. Note the prominent spine and pelvic bones. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)
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1.55 Cloacal prolapse in a snake. Note the desiccation of the tissues. (Courtesy of C. Dodd)

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Self assessment questions and Client assessment questions

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