1887

Neutering

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Abstract

Exploratory laparotomy involves a surgical approach to the abdominal cavity, to diagnose and potentially treat abdominal disease. In some cases, exploratory laparoscopy may be performed in place of laparotomy. This chapter details patient assessment and preparation; indications for laparotomy; site and length of incision; and organ handling. : Exploratory laparotomy (coeliotomy) utilizing a ventral midline incision; Liver biopsy and lobectomy.

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Figures

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12.1 The post-mortem appearance of the uterus of a 14-week-old female rabbit. The caecum, proximal colon and small intestine have been removed. The small size of the vestigial uterus (white arrow) can be compared with the rectum (black arrow) that lies adjacent. At this age the uterus is difficult to locate, friable and easily broken as it is exteriorized, which makes ovariohysterectomy difficult.
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12.2 Anatomy of the female reproductive tract and its relationship with neighbouring organs. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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12.3 An ovary that has been exteriorized during ovariohysterectomy. It contains follicles in various stages of development. The ovary is encompassed by the ampulla tubae uterinae, which is a deep red colour and resembles a blood vessel.
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12.4 Genitalia of 6-week-old female and male siblings. At this age, the testicles are not descended and it is easy to sex the rabbits incorrectly. The genital orifice needs to be retracted to expose (a) the cone-shaped vulva with a slit-shaped opening or (b) a small tubular penis. The distance between the genital opening and the anus is greater in the male than in the female.
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12.5 The exteriorized uterus of a rabbit in mid-pregnancy undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Viable fetal units and a resorbing one can be seen. The resorbing fetal unit is much smaller than the rest (arrow); dissection of the uterus showed that this unit contained a mass of amorphous tissue. The other units contained fetuses.
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12.6 A section of the uterus of a 5-year-old Dutch rabbit that had a palpable abdominal mass. The uterus was removed. The polypoid mass extended into the lumen and into the underlying muscle layers. This is the typical gross appearance of a uterine adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.
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12.7 The uterus of a French Lop rabbit that was presented for neutering. The uterus was filled with fluid (hydrometra). Prior to surgery the rabbit weighed 4.5 kg; following surgery she weighed 3.4 kg. The rabbit was thin with a distended abdomen and no body fat despite eating well. She made a full recovery following ovariohysterectomy.
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12.8 This ectopic fetus was found in the abdominal cavity during routine ovariohysterectomy.
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12.9 Radiographic appearance of areas of fat necrosis in the mesometrium. This is a dorsoventral view of a 7-year-old female rabbit that was neutered 6 years previously. The radiopaque areas were an incidental finding. Post-mortem examination confirmed that these lesions were solid calcified areas in the remnants of the mesometrium.
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12.10 Anatomy of external male genitalia. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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12.11 An inguinal hernia in a 6-year-old entire male Dwarf Lop. A fluctuating swelling in the left inguinal region was revealed after the fur was clipped and some blue chlorhexidine solution applied to the area. Surgical exploration revealed that the bladder had prolapsed through the inguinal musculature (arrowed). The rabbit made a full recovery following castration, re-placement of the bladder and closure of the inguinal canal and musculature.
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12.12 The external genitalia of an aged entire male rabbit that was presented for treatment because he was urinating down the inside of the right hindleg. Clinical examination revealed an enlarged right testicle, the size of a plum. It had expanded into the inguinal region and was distorting the scrotum so the penis was rotated. The rabbit urinated normally after he was neutered.
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12.13 The external genitalia of a 1-year-old entire male Dwarf Lop that was suddenly depressed and anorexic. The left hemiscrotum was painful and distorted. The black coloration is pigmented skin. Exploratory surgery revealed a 180 degree torsion of the testicle. The rabbit was neutered and made a full recovery.
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12.14 Comparative sizes of retained testicles. Both testicles were removed from a 9-month-old English rabbit. The testicle shown at the top of the picture was removed from the scrotum. The testicle shown below was removed from the abdomen, where it was lying close to the inguinal canal.
Image of Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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Image of Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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Image of Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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