Ophthalmological and otic disorders

image of Ophthalmological and otic disorders
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Very few diseases in poultry solely affect the eye, whereas many systemic diseases have ocular manifestations. This chapter discusses the normal anatomy of the eye, vision in poultry, ophthalmological examination, clinical signs and causes of a range of diseases, and ocular surgery, as well as normal anatomy and infectious diseases of the ears.

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14.1 Cross-section of the avian eye. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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14.2 Location of the sinuses around the eye in a chicken. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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14.3 The normal chicken eye demonstrating the brightly coloured iris.
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14.4 Illustrations of the fundus of birds. (a) Brush turkey. (b) Harlequin quail. (c) Black-bellied duck. (d) Blue snow goose. Note the variations in the form of the pecten in the four illustrations, and the area centralis or fovea in the Blue snow goose illustration. (Reproduced from Wood (1917))
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14.5 Examination of the eye using distant direct ophthalmoscopy.
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14.6 Use of the Tonovet rebound tonometer.
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14.7 Modified Schirmer tear test strip (left) for use in backyard poultry. The normal tear test strip (right) is shown for comparison.
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14.8 Use of the modified Schirmer tear test strip.
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14.9 Sinus enlargement in disease states. (a) Slight infraorbital enlargement in mild respiratory disease. (b) More severe infraorbital sinus enlargement. (c) Sinus enlargement around the entire globe.
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14.10 Anophthalmos in a 3-day-old chick.
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14.11 Corneal ulceration in a chicken following surface abrasion. (Courtesy of Dr N Biucimchi)
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14.12 Reddening of the iris in early uveitis in a chicken with cataract (both conditions are probably associated with trauma).
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14.13 Cutaneous form of fowlpox in a chicken. (Courtesy of V Roberts)
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14.14 Conjunctivitis in a duck.
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14.15 Ankyloblepharon as a result of lid regrowth following trauma in a duck.
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14.16 Squamous cell carcinoma in a chicken. (Courtesy of V Roberts)
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14.17 Anatomy of the ear of a chicken. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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14.18 Crusting in and around the infected ear canal in a chicken. (Courtesy of V Roberts)

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