Anaesthesia and analgesia

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Backyard poultry are prey species and susceptible to the negative effects of excessive stress. Anaesthesia and analgesia must be used carefully to alleviate suffering and reduce stress in patients. This chapter details requirements for anaesthesia, general anaesthetic protocols, local anaesthesia, analgesia, monitoring, air sac cannulation, recovery and anaesthetic emergencies.

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22.1 Equipment used for anaesthesia in poultry. Modified T-piece breathing system, non-cuffed endotracheal tubes and a selection of masks.
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22.2 Mask induction of anaesthesia.
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22.3 View of the glottis for endotracheal intubation.
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22.4 (a, b) Demonstration of the endotracheal tube tied in place with a bandage.
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22.7 Corneal reflex. (a) Gently touching the corneal surface with a cotton bud will (b) cause the nictitating membrane to sweep briskly across the globe at a light plane of anaesthesia.
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22.8 Non-invasive blood pressure measurement. The Doppler probe is placed over the ulnar artery and the cuff inflated to obtain an estimate of systolic blood pressure.
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22.9 (a) With the patient in right lateral recumbency, the leg is pulled caudally and wings dorsally to locate the last two ribs (dotted lines). The site for air sac tube placement is the gap between these two ribs (arrowed). (b) Artery forceps are placed bluntly through the muscle layers into the air sac. Opening the forceps creates space to place the endotracheal (ET) tube. (c) A cut down ET tube with pre-placed sutures is placed through the incision. Air flow through the tube can be confirmed using a feather. (d) The tube is secured by passing the suture material around the cranial and caudal ribs.
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22.10 A chicken in recovery following general anaesthesia. Note that the bird is wrapped in a towel and the head is elevated.

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