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fAbdominal pain and swelling

image of Abdominal pain and swelling

Abstract

Presentation of the dog with acute abdominal pain is common in veterinary practice. The general causes of abdominal pain include: distension of a hollow viscus or organ capsule; ischaemia; traction; and inflammation secondary to a variety of conditions. This chapter considers an approach to the acute abdomen, an approach to the swollen abdomen and surgical management. : FAST scan; Abdominocentesis; Diagnostic peritoneal lavage.

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Figures

25.1 A 12-year-old male entire Weimaraner with abdominal distension due to an abdominal mass originating from a retained testicle.
25.3 A 5-year-old male entire Cocker Spaniel receiving a blood transfusion after presenting with acute abdominal pain and abdominal distension due to a haemoabdomen (caused by a ruptured splenic haematoma). The dog initially presented collapsed, and fluid resuscitation was administered before providing transfusion support. The dog made a full recovery after surgical removal of the spleen.
25.4 Equipment for a minimum database of: packed cell volume, total solids, blood glucose; urinalysis; and semi-quantitative blood urea nitrogen.
25.5 Lateral radiograph showing obvious bladder stones. This 3-year-old neutered Bichon Frisé bitch presented with dysuria and severe abdominal pain. Cystotomy was performed to remove the bladder stones that were later determined to be composed of calcium oxalate.
25.6 Lateral abdominal radiograph showing multiple loops of distended intestine in a 2-year-old male neutered Border Terrier. No obvious obstruction was seen; however, a sock foreign body was later removed surgically.
25.8 A diagnostic work-up for abdominal swelling.
25.9 Obvious free fluid (arrowed) within the abdominal cavity detected using ultrasonography.
25.10 Subtle area of free fluid (arrowed) between the liver and spleen.
25.12 The presence of intracellular bacteria (arrow) is an indication of septic peritonitis. (H&E stain; original magnification X100)
Four-point ultrasound assessment for free abdominal fluid. 1 = diaphragmaticohepatic; 2 = splenorenal; 3 = cystocolic; 4 = hepatorenal. (Redrawn after Lisciandro et al., 2009) Four-point ultrasound assessment for free abdominal fluid. 1 = diaphragmaticohepatic; 2 = splenorenal; 3 = cystocolic; 4 = hepatorenal. (Redrawn after )

References

  1. Holt D and Brown D (2007) Acute abdominal and gastrointestinal surgical emergencies. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Emergency and Critical Care , ed. LG King and A Boag, pp.174191. BSAVA Publications, Gloucester
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  2. Kinns J (2011) Abdomen. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Ultrasonography , ed. F Barr and L Gaschen, pp.7284. BSAVA Publications, Gloucester
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  4. O’Brien R and Barr F (2009) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Abdominal Imaging . BSAVA Publications, Gloucester
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