Urination problems; genital discharge

image of Urination problems; genital discharge
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Disorders of the urogenital and reproductive systems are among the most common presentations at veterinary practices. There are many different disorders, and a bewildering array of investigative tests that may be applied to differentiate the disorders. This chapter suggests basic principles of thorough clinical examination, either to reach a prompt diagnosis or to decide on appropriate tests. This chapter considers clinical signs and causes, history and signalment, physical examination, diagnostic investigations, conditions causing difficulties with urination and urinary incontinence.

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26.4 Distinguishing haematuria from haemoglobinuria. Both these urine samples have been centrifuged. The tube on the right contains a pellet of red blood cells, demonstrating haematuria; the patient was found to have cystitis. The tube on the left has no sediment, demonstrating haemoglobinuria; the patient had immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia.
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26.6 The colon (arrowed) lies immediately adjacent to the bladder and can mimic the appearance of a large calculus. This dog also had a large bladder mass. A genuine calculus (C) lying against the bladder wall, casting a strong acoustic shadow. The calculus moves position with gravity. (Transverse plane; right is to the left of the image.) (Courtesy of the University of Bristol; reproduced from the )
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26.7 Ultrasound scan of a bitch with pyometra. The sacculated, fluid-filled uterus is labelled. The bladder is seen at the top left of the image.
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26.8 In this cytology smear, vaginal epithelial cells are small and few, but there are large numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes signifying vaginitis or uterine infection.
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26.9 Lateral abdominal radiograph of a 5-year-old male entire cross-bred dog with a presenting history of dysuria and haematuria. The radiograph shows several small radiodense masses within the urinary bladder. The stones were removed and found to be formed of calcium oxalate.
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26.10 Struvite uroliths taken from a 13-year-old neutered Jack Russell Terrier bitch with a history of haematuria and dysuria.
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26.11 An enlarged clitoris in a 9-month-old healthy Irish Setter. Removal of the uterus and ovotestis. Removal of the clitoris with the os clitoris.
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26.12 Post-mortem photograph from a dog with benign prostatic hyperplasia: the prostate gland (arrowed) was as large as the bladder (*).
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26.13 Lateral abdominal radiograph of a 10-year-old male entire Springer Spaniel with a history of lethargy, weight loss and PU/PD. Haematuria was noted on a urine sample. The radiograph shows a large abdominal prostate gland. A radiodense mass may also be seen in the sublumbar region. Ultrasonography demonstrated the presence of a heteroechoic/cystic mass in the prostate gland. Aspiration and microscopy confirmed a prostatic carcinoma. The dog was euthanased.
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26.14 Testicles removed from a 7-year-old male entire Golden Retriever with an abdominal testicle. The dog was presented showing signs of acute abdominal pain. The testicle on the left is grossly engorged and there is torsion of the spermatic cord.
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26.15 Pyometra: the fluid-filled uterus resembles a ‘string of sausages’.
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26.16 At caesarean section four of these puppies were mummified at different stages of their development, while two puppies (right) were alive.
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