Pain management III: chronic pain

image of Pain management III: chronic pain
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This chapter looks at defining chronic pain, suffering and the components of pain and the chronic pain consultation.

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12.3 This simple rubber boot can help patients with difficulty gripping on slippery surfaces.
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12.4 Triangulation. Assessment of all aspects of the patient’s pain will reduce the ‘area of uncertainty’ (i.e. the area within the triangle) about the degree of patient suffering.
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12.9 Sit to stand. (a) The dog should start sitting as squarely as possible. (b) The dog is then encouraged to stand, so that it uses its hindlimb muscles. (c) The dog ends up in a standing position. This exercise can then be repeated.
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12.10 ‘Shake paws’. Care should be taken not to pull on the carpus.
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12.11 Elbow extension. This may be a safer technique to stretch the shoulder and major forelimb muscles compared with the ‘shake paws’ exercise.
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12.12 Hindlimb extension. Gentle pressure on the cranial thigh muscles will extend the hip and stifle. Some dogs will do this voluntarily when the flank or upper thigh area is stroked.
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12.14 (a–b) There are many different devices available to assist animals with mobility problems. (b, Courtesy of L Lowry)
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