Anaesthesia for paediatric and geriatric patients

image of Anaesthesia for paediatric and geriatric patients
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This chapter discusses the anatomy and physiology of paediatric and geriatric animals, considerations for anaesthesia, anaesthetic induction and maintenance, fluid therapy, monitoring and recovery.

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30.1 Graph showing the changes of an organ’s function in relation to patient age.
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30.2 A neonatal puppy with closed eyes, a relatively large nose and the tip of a large tongue just visible.
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30.3 Careful positioning of the hip joints in an elderly Dalmatian.
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30.6 Placement of an intravenous catheter in a very young and small patient can be challenging.
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30.7 A 3-hour-old puppy requiring emergency umbilical hernia repair, anaesthetized with sevoflurane and NO delivered by facemask; hydromorphone was used to provide analgesia. (Courtesy of Tanya Duke-Novakovski, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada)
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30.8 Care should be taken to minimize mechanical dead space in small patients. Although a paediatric heat and moisture exchanger is being used in this kitten, dead space is still considerable for a small patient.
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30.9 Preoxygenation of a geriatric dog before induction of anaesthesia.
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30.10 An intraosseous catheter.
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30.11 Intravenous administration set for small patients, giving a high number of drops/ml. (Courtesy of Asher Allison, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, UK)
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30.12 A paediatric patient recovering in an incubator.

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