Anaesthetic complications, accidents and emergencies

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Most common anaesthetic complications are caused by central nervous system (CNS) and cardiopulmonary depressant effects of the drugs used in anaesthesia or by the procedure for which anaesthesia is required. This chapter looks at anaesthetic complications, anaesthetic mishaps and accidents and anaesthetic emergencies.

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31.2 Algorithm for anaphylaxis. ABP = arterial blood pressure; i.o. = intraosseous; IPPV = intermittent positive pressure ventilation; i.t. = intratracheal; i.v. = intravenous.
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31.3 Algorithm for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). BLS = basic life support; CPA = cardiopulmonary arrest; ECG = electrocardiogram; ETCO = end-tidal carbon dioxide; PEA = pulseless electrical activity; ROSC = return of spontaneous circulation; VF = ventricular fibrillation; VT = ventricular tachycardia. (Modified from with permission from the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care)
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31.4 An artificial manual breathing unit (‘Ambu bag’) can be used to ventilate the lungs with either room air or air enriched with oxygen.
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31.5 Cardiac pump technique. (a) For cats and small dogs (<10 kg) with compliant chests, use a one-handed technique to administer circumferential chest compressions with the hand wrapped around the sternum directly over the heart. (b) A two-handed technique applied directly over the heart may be used in larger cats and small dogs with low thoracic compliance. (c) Similarly, in deep, narrow-chested dogs like Greyhounds, perform chest compressions in either left or right lateral recumbency with the hands directly over the heart.
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31.6 Thoracic pump technique. (a) For most dogs (>10 kg), perform chest compressions in either left or right lateral recumbency over the widest portion of the chest. (b) For barrel-chested dogs like Bulldogs, administer sternal compressions directly over the heart with the patient in dorsal recumbency.
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