Normal locomotion

image of Normal locomotion
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It is essential that the clinician recognizes and understands normal gait patterns so that the presence, extent and potential significance of abnormality can be appreciated. This chapter describes and compares subjective and objective methods of gait analyisis.

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1.2 The spring-loaded inverted pendulum model of repetitive limb movement during the stance phase, illustrating cyclical generation and partial recycling of energy during movement.
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1.3 Subjective assessment of lameness. (a) A numerical rating scale (NRS) offers numerical categories, which may have a descriptive term attached, to best describe a patient’s lameness. (b) A visual analogue score (VAS) is a continuous scale; degree of lameness is scored on a line between two extremes of the variable. (a Modified from )
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1.4 Force plate analysis allows load during stance to be resolved into three component forces: F (mediolateral), F (craniocaudal) and F (vertical). Of these forces, GRF (F) is the dominant vector. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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1.5 Kinetic data can be assessed graphically when force (Newtons) is plotted as a function of time (milliseconds) as shown in this diagram illustrating a single forelimb and hindlimb step. GRF (F) is the dominant vector and is most directly correlated with axial loading of the limb. Forelimb curves are greater in magnitude than those for the hindlimb, reflecting the respective 60%:40% distribution of bodyweight.
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1.6 (a) Kinematic analysis can be performed using retroreflective markers attached to skin overlying the centres of rotation of the joints; the reflected light is detected by infrared cameras. (b) Mathematically, the limb can be represented as a linked segment model. (c) Cadaveric data can be applied to each limb segment model to define the volume, centre of mass (red dot), weight (mass × gravity; mg), joint reaction forces (F, F), moment arms (w, x, y, z), inertia (i) and angular acceleration (a). These data, when combined with kinetic and kinematic data, can be used to define the angular, moment and power contributions of each segment within the limb.
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1.7 Kinematic data are collected via multiple spatially calibrated infrared cameras sampling reflected light. Data can be sampled either (a) two-dimensionally or (b) three-dimensionally. The blue arrow denotes the plane of F and the red arrow denotes the plane of F. The green dots denote the position of retroreflective markers affixed to the skin overlying the bony prominences of the thoracic limb (seven markers) and pelvic limb (six markers) as well as one affixed to the neck to denote head position.
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