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Anatomy and physiology

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Abstract

The class of Aves is vastly diverse, with over 10,000 species in 27 different orders. The anatomy and physiology described within this chapter is based on that of parrots, raptors, passerines, pigeons and chickens. Various interesting variations seen in species of other orders are also described.

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Figures

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2.2 Bones of the skull (macaw). 1 = mandibular; 2 = maxilla; 3 = rhinotheca; 4 = gnathotheca; 5 = quadrate; 6 = jugal; 7 = pterygoid; 8 = palatine; 9 = craniofacial joint; 10 = cranium.
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2.3 Dorsal view of the bones of the trunk and extremities (macaw). 1 = cervical vertebrae; 2 = notarium; 3 = synsacrum; 4 = tail vertebrae; 5 = pygostyle; 6 = scapula; 7 = humerus; 8 = ulna; 9 = radius; 10 = ilium; 11 = pubis; 12 = femur; 13 = tibiotarsus; 14 = fibula.
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2.4 Bones of the shoulder girdle, ribs and sternum (macaw). 1 = coracoid; 2 = clavicle; 3 = sternum; 4 = vertebral ribs; 5 = uncinate process; 6 = sternal ribs.
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2.5 Bones of the wing (macaw). 1 = ulna; 2 = radius; 3 = radial carpal bone; 4 = ulnar carpal bone; 5 = major metacarpal bone; 6 = minor metacarpal bone; 7 = alular digit (phalanx I); 8 = major digit (phalanx II); 9 = minor digit (phalanx III); 10 = humerus.
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2.6 Schematic drawing displaying insertion and action of the flight muscles (modified after ). The pectoral muscles (2) achieve downward movement of the wing, whereas the supracoracoid muscles (3) achieve lifting of the wing due to diversion of fibres via the triosseous foramen (1). C = coracoid; F = furcula (fused clavicles);H = humerus; St = sternum, with prominent carina. (Reproduced from the , courtesy of RM Hirschberg)
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2.7 Bones of the lower limb (macaw). 1 = femur; 2 = stifle; 3 = fibula; 4 = tibiotarsus I; 5 = tarsometatarsus; 6 = phalanx II; 7 = phalanx III; 8 = phalanx IV; 9 = phalanx I.
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2.9 Body cavity. Longitudinal section. Sagittal section. 1 = horizontal septum; 1' = costoseptales muscle; 2 = oblique septum; 2' = hepatic ligament; 3 = posthepatic septum; 4 = cervical air sac; 5 = clavicular air sac; 6 = cranial thoracic air sac; 7 = caudal thoracic air sac; 8 = abdominal air sac; 9 = pulmonary cavity; 10 = subpulmonary cavity; 11 = pericardial cavity; 12 = dorsal liver peritoneal cavity; 13 = ventral liver peritoneal cavity; 14 = abdominal peritoneal cavity; A = lung; B = heart; C = liver; D = ventriculus; E = kidney. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.11 The size and shape of the beak is a good indicator of the diet eaten. Omnivore. Insectivore. Granivore. Nectivore. Frugivore. Piscivore. Carrion eater. Carnivore. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.12 Lateral view of the psittacine digestive system (liver not shown in this view). (Redrawn after ) Ventral view of the psittacine digestive system and liver. (Redrawn after ) Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.13 Ventral view of the female psittacine urogenital system and cloaca. (Redrawn after ) Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.15 Psittacine infraorbital sinus. (Redrawn after ) Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.16 The pigeon syrinx. 1 = trachea; 2 = primary bronchus; 3 = tympanum; 4 = tympaniform membrane.
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2.17 System of air sacs (modified after ). The right side displays opening of the major bronchi supplying the respective air sacs. The colours indicate functional grouping into caudal (blue) and cranial (green) compartments. 1 = unpaired clavicular sac with axillary diverticulum (1’) and the recess pneumatizing the humeral bone (1’’); 2 = cervical air sac with vertebral recesses (2’) pneumatizing the cervical vertebrae; 3 = cranial thoracic air sac; 4 = caudal thoracic air sac; 5 = abdominal air sac; L = lungs; Tr = trachea. (Reproduced from the , courtesy of RM Hirschberg)
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2.18 Movement of air through the lung of a bird. Inspiratory movements increase air sac volumes and expiratory movements decrease them. The volume and shape of the lung remains the same. Because of the arrangement of the parabronchi and the possible presence of an aerodynamic valve, the air is moved unidirectionally through the parabronchi and therefore through the area of gaseous exchange. (© Nigel Harcourt-Brown)
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2.20 The male pigeon urogenital system (breeding season). 1 = testes; 2 = ductus deferens; 3 = cranial kidney lobe; 4 = middle kidney lobe; 5 = caudal kidney lobe; 6 = ureter. The male pigeon urogenital system (out of breeding season). 1 = testes; 2 = ductus deferens; 3 = cranial kidney lobe; 4 = middle kidney lobe; 5 = caudal kidney lobe; 6 = ureter.
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2.21 The mammalian and reptilian (avian) nephrons. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.22 Schematic drawing showing the vascular system of the kidney (arteries are shown in red and veins in black) (modified after ). The encircled areas show the localization of the renal valve that enables redirection of venous return. 1 = descending aorta and cranial vena cava; 2 = cranial portal vein; 3 = external iliac artery and vein; 4 = caudal portal vein; 5 = caudal renal vein; 6 = ischiadic artery and vein; 7 = internal iliac vein; 8 = median sacral artery and caudal mesenteric vein. (Reproduced from the , courtesy of RM Hirschberg)
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2.24 The active female pigeon reproductive system. 1 = ovary; 2 = infundibulum; 3 = magnum and isthmus; 4 = uterus (shell gland); 5 = lung.
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2.26 Ventral view of a plucked pigeon breast. 1 = feather tracts (pterylae); 2 = areas with no feather follicles (apteria); 3 = carina of the sternum.
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2.27 Schematic drawing of the structure of the feather vane of contour feathers. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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2.28 Feather types (Budgerigar). A = contour feather; B = semiplume feather; C = down feather.
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2.29 Schematic drawing of the structures of the eye. (© Nigel Harcourt-Brown)
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2.30 Summary of calcium (Ca) metabolism in the bird (modified after ). CT = calcitonin; PGE = prostaglandin E; PTH = parathyroid hormone.

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