1887

An approach to the swollen avian eye

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Abstract

A simple presentation of ‘swollen eye’ could be the result of a panoply of diseases. Most of these conditions are difficult to treat and management, rather than treatment, may be required. This chapter explains the processes of ophthalmic examination, approaching infraorbital sinusitis, approaching conjunctivitis and differentiating globe enlargement and exophthalmos. : Conure with squamous cell carcinoma; Budgerigar with a retrobulbar mass; Magpie with avian poxvirus.

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Figures

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21.1 Generalized swelling of the ocular region in an African Grey Parrot. Trauma caused by another bird resulted in laceration of the third eyelid and a retrobulbar abscess. The globe was unaffected. (© John Chitty)
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21.2 Tick bite reaction in a Tawny Owl. A localized tick bite reaction in the lower lid of a Harris’ Hawk. (© John Chitty)
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21.3 The periocular swelling in this pigeon is caused by avian poxvirus infection.
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21.4 Infraorbital sinus neoplasia is uncommon; lymphoma is the most frequent type, as there is a large amount of lymphoid tissue in this region. The solid bilateral swellings in this African Grey Parrot were diagnosed as lymphoma by examination of fine-needle aspirates. (© John Chitty)
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21.5 Fluid swelling on the dorsal part of the infraorbital sinus in an Amazon parrot. (© John Chitty)
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21.6 Amazon parrot with air-filled periocular swelling and cervicocephalic air sac obstruction.
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21.7 Chicken with a classic infraorbital sinusitis. The globe appears normal but vision is impeded by the swelling below the eye.
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21.8 The severe infraorbital sinusitis in this peahen has formed a fibriscess where surgical removal of the inflammatory mass is necessary.
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21.9 The periocular swelling in this African Grey Parrot with sinusitis has been identified early enough that flushing can alleviate the signs.
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21.10 Cockatiel with chemotic conjunctivitis; the swollen conjunctiva severely impedes vision. This condition is responsive to topical antibiotic drops.
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21.12 Having prepared the eye aseptically and debrided the eyelid margins, the eye is dissected free by means of cutting the muscular attachments. Having removed the eye (usually piecemeal), the third eyelid is removed and the lid edges opposed using two layers of simple continuous sutures. (© John Chitty)
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