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Lower respiratory tract disease

image of Lower respiratory tract disease
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Abstract

Lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) is common in parrots, raptors and passerines. However, it can be difficult to recognize because presenting signs are often non-specific and frequently not obviously respiratory. This chapter deals with the clinical signs, therapeutic approach, diagnostic techniques and indications for diseases involving the lungs and air sacs. : Glossy Black Cockatoo with clinical chlamydiosis; Green-winged Macaw with aspergillosis and infection; Thin Cockatiel with dyspnoea; Foreign body ingestion in an African Grey Parrot.

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Figures

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22.2 This Budgerigar presented with dyspnoea. The tail was bobbing with each breath and the bird’s posture on the perch shows its neck and body extended to ease respiration.
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22.6 Ventrodorsal views of birds presenting with lower respiratory signs. African Grey Parrot with aspergillosis. Note the granuloma in the left side just caudal to the lungs. The caudal air sacs are clear and slightly distended showing respiratory obstruction. African Grey Parrot with a large aspergilloma filling the left-sided air sacs. In cases such as these, surgery is often required (after stabilization and initial antifungal therapy) to remove the fungal granulomas. Obese Amazon parrot. Dyspnoea was caused by a combination of hepatomegaly and large fat deposits compressing air spaces.
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22.7 Laterolateral views of birds presenting with lower respiratory signs. African Grey Parrot with splenomegaly and diffuse inflammation of the air sacs. African Grey Parrot with granuloma formation in the air sacs and congestion of the lungs. Ascites and cardiomegaly in an African Grey Parrot. Parrot with splenomegaly, lung congestion (loss of definition) and thickening of the (air sac wall) indicating air sacculitis.
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22.8 Enlarged heart and ascites on ultrasonography.
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22.9 Coelioscopic views of lesions. Granuloma formation; a thickened wall with a large vessel indicating host inflammatory response. Nebulization therapy is unlikely to penetrate such lesions. Fungal lesion (right) invading pulmonary tissue. The lungs are inflamed and congested. Biopsy in this case revealed primary inflammatory disease; the fungus was a secondary invader. Fungal lesion with host inflammatory response visible in lung tissue surrounding the lesion. Extensive fungal lesion. Given the extent of the fungal development there is little or no granuloma formation and blood examination indicated a poor host immune response. Old fungal lesion with walling-off and fibrin tags formed round a granuloma.
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22.11 Post-mortem view of the lungs of a parrot that died following polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Teflon) inhalation. Note the extreme congestion and redness.
Image of (Courtesy of Eliza Read)
(Courtesy of Eliza Read) (Courtesy of Eliza Read)
Image of (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views of a Green-winged Macaw, showing multiple densities throughout the lung fields.
(a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views of a Green-winged Macaw, showing multiple densities throughout the lung fields. (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views of a Green-winged Macaw, showing multiple densities throughout the lung fields.
Image of Cockatiel hen with marked ascites, being prepared for surgery. (Courtesy of Adrian Gallagher)
Cockatiel hen with marked ascites, being prepared for surgery. (Courtesy of Adrian Gallagher) Cockatiel hen with marked ascites, being prepared for surgery. (Courtesy of Adrian Gallagher)
Image of (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views of an African Grey Parrot with barium ingestion. Barium can clearly be seen outlining the trachea, the lungs and the air sacs. The outlined ingested feeding tube is visible in the proventriculus. (Courtesy of Adrian Gallagher)
(a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views of an African Grey Parrot with barium ingestion. Barium can clearly be seen outlining the trachea, the lungs and the air sacs. The outlined ingested feeding tube is visible in the proventriculus. (Courtesy of Adrian Gallagher) (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views of an African Grey Parrot with barium ingestion. Barium can clearly be seen outlining the trachea, the lungs and the air sacs. The outlined ingested feeding tube is visible in the proventriculus. (Courtesy of Adrian Gallagher)

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