1887

Abnormal or loose droppings

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Abstract

Abnormal droppings, and a decreased appetite, are probably the most frequent first clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease. This chapter provides information on the normal appearance of droppings and a systematic approach to diagnosis of the underlying conditions causing diarrhoea. : African Grey Parrot with green, malodorous, voluminous faeces; Hawk-headed Parrot with haematochezia; Cockatiel with biliverdinuria.

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Figures

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24.1 Normal (right) abnormal excreta (left) from a Blue-fronted Amazon.
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24.3 Diurnal birds of prey typically expel excreta horizontally backwards. (Courtesy of Andreas Lischke)
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24.7 Vent of an African Grey Parrot with staining and tissue protruding from a neoplasia.
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24.9 Normal excreta in a granivorous bird, the urates are white and creamy.
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24.10 Normal excreta of a Great Horned Owl. Note the large amount of urates. (Courtesy of Andreas Lischke)
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24.11 Ascarids in the loose droppings of an Amazon parrot.
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24.12 Seeds that have fallen on to the excreta might be mistaken for undigested seeds, as seen with certain diseases such as proventricular dilatation disease.
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24.13 Gram stain of the faeces of a Budgerigar, showing overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria and two organisms.
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24.14 Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease. The crop and the proventriculus are severely distended and filled with gas.
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24.15 Ventrodorsal and laterolateral views showing contrast radiography with barium sulphate which has been performed at different time intervals to reveal a reduced gastrointestinal transit time.
Image of Increased number of Gram-negative rods.
Increased number of Gram-negative rods. Increased number of Gram-negative rods.
Image of (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views show a mildly enlarged proventriculus.
(a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views show a mildly enlarged proventriculus. (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) laterolateral views show a mildly enlarged proventriculus.
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