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Egg retention

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Abstract

Egg retention, or post-ovulatory stasis, is the failure of an egg to pass through the oviduct at a normal rate. A further and more advanced sign is dystocia. This can lead to cloacal impaction or cloacal prolapse. Causes of egg retention vary in different species and are often multifactorial. This chapter covers clinical signs, diagnostic tests, clinical approach, therapy and complications associated with egg retention. : Budgerigar with distension of the caudal abdomen.

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Figures

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25.1 Comparison of a healthy Budgerigar (left) and a Budgerigar with abdominal distension and wide perching stance. Budgerigar showing depression and fluffed-up feathers. Note the hypertrophic cere often seen in female budgerigars (arrowhead) and the protrusion of the back (arrowed) often seen with abdominal distension and dyspnoea.
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25.3 Distressed and/or dyspnoeic birds should be placed in an oxygen box or incubator to recover before examination.
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25.4 Radiograph of an egg-bound bird. Note the size and the thickness of the egg: it is far too big for the size of the bird and the shell is quite thick. These are signs that the egg has been in the uterus for a while.
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25.5 Ventrodorsal and lateral views of a bird with a shell-less egg. (a) A soft tissue opacity can be seen dorsal to the ventriculus (arrowed). (b) There is ventral and lateral displacement of the ventriculus (arrowed).
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25.6 Lubricating the cloaca and uterine opening (arrowed) and applying gentle pressure at the proximal part of the egg can help to deliver it. (Courtesy of the Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, University of Zurich)
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25.7 Ultrasonography performed on the patient in Figure 25.5 . There are two eggs (arrowed) visible in the coelom. (Courtesy of the Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, University of Zurich)
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25.8 Ventrodorsal view of a bird with a shell-less egg and concurrent salpingitis. The soft tissue structure (S) and a small almond-shaped structure, the shell-less egg (black arrow), are visible. Note the increased radiopacity in both femora (white arrow). Plain lateral view of the same bird. The soft tissue structure (S) and the almond-shaped structure, shell-less egg (arrowed), can again be seen. (Courtesy of the Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, University of Zurich)
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25.9 A 7-year-old Budgerigar with cloacal prolapse. Note the feather loss around the vent and the slight protrusion of the cloaca due to straining.
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25.10 Ventrodorsal and lateral views of a bird with egg yolk peritonitis. In both, there is a loss of detail in the caudal coleom (arrowed). The kidneys could not be well differentiated and the ventriculus (V) is more caudally and ventrally displaced. Air sacculitis is also a possibility. (Courtesy of the Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, University of Zurich)
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25.11 Ultrasonography performed on the same bird as in Figure 25.10 with suspected egg yolk peritonitis. Note the cystic structure with thin wall and hyperechoic material (FM) floating inside (white arrows). The right kidney is marked with small white callipers and there is a small cystic structure arising from the region of the left kidney (black arrow). (Courtesy of the Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, University of Zurich)
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25.12 An 8-year-old Sulphur-crested Cockatoo with coelomic hernia, exhibiting signs of egg laying. The hernia is well visible to the right and close to the cloaca. Note the yellow discoloration of the skin (xanthomatosis).
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25.13 Ventrodorsal and lateral views of a bird with a hernia. Note the radiopaque structures in the coelom (e); these are old eggs. The bird exhibited signs of egg laying according to the owner but nothing was produced.
Image of A 6-year-old female Budgerigar with a distended lower abdominal region, and yellow discoloration of the skin (xanthomatosis). Hernia is also suspected.
A 6-year-old female Budgerigar with a distended lower abdominal region, and yellow discoloration of the skin (xanthomatosis). Hernia is also suspected. A 6-year-old female Budgerigar with a distended lower abdominal region, and yellow discoloration of the skin (xanthomatosis). Hernia is also suspected.

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