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Practical management of free-roaming populations

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Abstract

Trap-neuter-return (TNR) is the name given to the capture, neutering and returning to home of groups of feral and free-roaming cats and dogs. This chapter describes a set of procedures and practices that are common to control of free-roaming dog and cat populations worldwide. Trap/catch, neuter, release (TNR/CNR) checklist; Euthanasia.

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Figures

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5.1 Body condition score chart for dogs. This chart scores body condition out of 9. (Courtesy of WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee)
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5.2 Body condition score chart for cats. This chart scores body condition out of 9. (© Nestlé Purina PetCare and reproduced with their permission)
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5.3 Calculating an estimate of the total population size using mark–resight methodology. (Adapted from )
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5.4 Dog catching pole net with example dimensions. (© Mission Rabies)
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5.5 When using a catch pole it is essential to support the weight of the dog during lifting. (Courtesy of WVS India)
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5.6 Catching dogs with hessian sacks is an alternative method that can be used in some locations, but it requires highly skilled operators. (© Mission Rabies)
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5.7 An example of a cage trap for dogs. (© MDC Exports)
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5.8 An ear notch should be easily recognizable at a distance. (© Richard Murgatroyd Photography)
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5.9 Manual cat trap in use. (© Ian MacFarlaine)
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5.10 Drop cat trap in use. (© Ian MacFarlaine)
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5.11 Feral tom cat in a crush cage prior to anaesthesia. Note the identification label, which remains with the cat at all times and cable ties securing the cage to prevent escape. (© Jenny Stavisky)
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5.12 Use of an isolator to restrain a cat for injection. (© Ian MacFarlaine)
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5.13 Transfer from a trap to a crush cage is most easily achieved by placing them end to end and covering the crush cage. Most cats will naturally prefer to be covered and will move into the cage. This should be carried out in a secure closed room. (© Jenny Stavisky)
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5.14 An ear tip should provide a clear mark that is distinguishable from fight wounds in even the most battle-scarred tom cat. (© Ian MacFarlaine)
Image of Raising awareness by engaging with the local community, as well as other local animal welfare workers, is essential to the success of a project, as seen here in a rabies control project in Ranchi, India. (© Mission Rabies)
Raising awareness by engaging with the local community, as well as other local animal welfare workers, is essential to the success of a project, as seen here in a rabies control project in Ranchi, India. (© Mission Rabies) Raising awareness by engaging with the local community, as well as other local animal welfare workers, is essential to the success of a project, as seen here in a rabies control project in Ranchi, India. (© Mission Rabies)
Image of A method for identifying treated animals, such as ear-tipping for cats, is essential.
A method for identifying treated animals, such as ear-tipping for cats, is essential. A method for identifying treated animals, such as ear-tipping for cats, is essential. (Courtesy of H Eckman)
Image of Experienced trappers and volunteers will help not only with collecting animals, but also with monitoring post release.
Experienced trappers and volunteers will help not only with collecting animals, but also with monitoring post release. Experienced trappers and volunteers will help not only with collecting animals, but also with monitoring post release. (Courtesy of H Eckman)
Image of Each patient must be identifiable at all times. This male kitten is prepared for castration. Note the use of eye lubricant, haemostat on the ear, and identification card. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Each patient must be identifiable at all times. This male kitten is prepared for castration. Note the use of eye lubricant, haemostat on the ear, and identification card. (© Jenny Stavisky) Each patient must be identifiable at all times. This male kitten is prepared for castration. Note the use of eye lubricant, haemostat on the ear, and identification card. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Image of Good lighting is essential for safe surgery. Creative solutions, such as this head torch, can be found.
Good lighting is essential for safe surgery. Creative solutions, such as this head torch, can be found. Good lighting is essential for safe surgery. Creative solutions, such as this head torch, can be found. (Courtesy of Worldwide Veterinary Service)
Image of Feral female kitten prepared for neutering. Note the bubble wrap and gloves filled with warm water to help maintain body temperature. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Feral female kitten prepared for neutering. Note the bubble wrap and gloves filled with warm water to help maintain body temperature. (© Jenny Stavisky) Feral female kitten prepared for neutering. Note the bubble wrap and gloves filled with warm water to help maintain body temperature. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Image of Even in field clinic conditions, basic necessities for sterility, such as gloving and draping, should not be neglected. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Even in field clinic conditions, basic necessities for sterility, such as gloving and draping, should not be neglected. (© Jenny Stavisky) Even in field clinic conditions, basic necessities for sterility, such as gloving and draping, should not be neglected. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Image of Administration of an injectable intramuscular anaesthetic combination to a feral cat in a crush cage. A blanket can be used to cover the cage to minimize stimulation after injection. (© Jenny Stavisky)
Administration of an injectable intramuscular anaesthetic combination to a feral cat in a crush cage. A blanket can be used to cover the cage to minimize stimulation after injection. (© Jenny Stavisky) Administration of an injectable intramuscular anaesthetic combination to a feral cat in a crush cage. A blanket can be used to cover the cage to minimize stimulation after injection. (© Jenny Stavisky)

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