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Halitosis is defined as a noticeably unpleasant odour emitted from the mouth during breathing. Clinically, halitosis can be subdivided into two categories: physiological and pathological. Halitosis is common in dogs and cats and is a significant cause for concern among pet owners. This chapter covers pathophysiology, differential diagnoses, signalment, history and physical examination, diagnostic tests and treatment.

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11.2 Periodontitis is a common cause of halitosis. (a) A 5-year-old Maltese dog with severe periodontitis, dental calculus and gingival haemorrhage. (b) A 6.5-year-old mixed-breed dog with severe periodontitis, gingivitis and dental calculus. (Courtesy of Amy Somrak)
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11.3 (a–c) Oronasal fistulae in three dogs. (Courtesy of Amy Somrak)
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11.4 (a, b) Gingivostomatitis in a 7.5-year-old castrated male Domestic Shorthaired cat. (Courtesy of Amy Somrak)
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