1887

Diseases of the biliary system

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Abstract

PLEASE NOTE THAT A MORE RECENT EDITION OF THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THE LIBRARY

The liver detoxifies or catabolizes many exogenous and endogenous compounds, and many are removed from the body by excretion into the bile. The biliary system is a branded structure that transports bile from each individual liver cell. The hepatocytes lie in cell plates, which radiate around the central vein and connect central and portal regions of the liver acinus. Blood flows from the portal triads to the central region within the sinusoids, while bile flows in the opposite direction. The lateral membranes connecting adjacent liver cells contain a specialized region; the canalicular membrane. The space between canalicular membranes of adjacent cells is sealed by tight junctions and forms the smallest branches of the bile system, the canaliculi. This excretory region of the hepatocyte membrane encompasses 15% of the cell surface. This chapter covers Anatomy and physiology of the biliary system; Pathophysiology of the biliary dysfunction; Clinical signs; Diagnosis; and Biliary diseases.

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Figures

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25.1 Acholic faeces. Pale faeces lacking bile pigments passed by a jaundiced dog with a complete bile duct obstruction caused by a pancreatic carcinoma. (Courtesy of Edward Hall)
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25.3 Bile peritonitis. Obvious bile-like fluid obtained by abdominocentesis in a dog 7 days after abdominal trauma and gall bladder rupture in a road traffic accident. (Courtesy of Edward Hall)
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25.4 A lateral radiograph of a cross-breed dog with a radiodense cholelith lying within the gall bladder close to the ventral border of the liver. (Courtesy of James Simpson)
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25.5 Section of hepatic parenchyma from a jaundiced dog, demonstrating obliteration of most of the normal liver architecture, particularly periportally. A marked inflammatory cell infiltrate is evident periportally and extending well into parenchyma; comprising predominantly neutrophils with some macrophages. The histopathological diagnosis was severe neutrophilic cholangitis. H&E stain, original magnification x500. (Courtesy of Emma O’Neill)
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25.6 Histological appearance of lymphocytic cholangitis in a middle-aged Domestic Short-hair cat, showing a lymphocytic infiltrate centred on the portal areas. H&E stain. (Courtesy of Michael Day)
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25.7 Mucosal surface of the gall bladder removed from a 10-year-old Springer Spaniel with recurrent bacterial cholecystitis, showing gall bladder enlargement, thickening of the wall and cystic mucinous hyperplasia. (Courtesy of Edward Hall)
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25.8 Appearance at surgery of the biliary tract of a cat with an extra-hepatic bile duct obstruction caused by a bile duct carcinoma. (Courtesy of Susan Bunch)

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